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Tuesday, September 10, 2019

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financial dictionary pdf - financial terminology dictionary - financial dictionary app


Jack Ma's Worth and Influence

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Jack Ma is the founder and executive chairman of Alibaba Group Holding Ltd. Learn more about his successes and rise to affluence in the tech industry.

Small Caps Shine

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The Russell 2000 outperformed large caps as semiconductor stocks neared record highs. Could bond yields be close to bottoming?

Day Trading: An Introduction

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What is day trading? Read this introductory article to learn a bit more about day trading, who does it, and how it works.

Is a 401(k) a Qualified Retirement Plan?

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Yes, a 401(k) meets the definition of a qualified retirement plan. Here is why.

Does gross profit include labor and overhead?

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Gross profit is a company's profit after subtracting the costs of producing goods and services. Several costs impact gross profit—directly and indirectly.

How to Become a 401(k) Millionaire

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Want to be a 401(k) millionaire? Here are some tips to get you on the right path.

How budgeting works for companies

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Budgeting is an integral part of running a business efficiently and effectively. Learn more about the two types of budgets that companies commonly use: static and flexible.

3 Bargain Blue Chips With Momentum As Stocks Near Peak

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AT&T, McKesson and D.R. Horton still may offer upside in a pricey market.

How to Set Up a Backdoor Roth IRA

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High income earners can't contribute directly to a Roth IRA. But thanks to a tax loophole, they can still contribute indirectly.

Stocks Today Mirror Market Before 20% 2018 Plunge, Highlighting Risk

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Four key negative factors raise the risk that stocks have peaked.

Understanding Supply-Side Economics

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Does the amount of goods and services produced set the pace for economic growth? Here are the arguments.

Visa Shares Charge Higher With Big Buy Indicator

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Strong buy signals and solid growth expectations for payment companies suggest upside potential for Visa stock.

Natural Gas Heading Higher in Seasonal Rally

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Natural gas is gaining ground for the first time in 2019 and could post greater-than-expected upside in coming months.

Value or Growth Stocks: Which Are Better?

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Learn about the age-old debate about growth vs. value stocks, and how determining which kind is better depends on a number of factors.

Lululemon Shares See Rare Big Money Signal in 2019

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Athletic-wear stocks are poised for big growth, and rare buying signals could mean significant gains ahead for Lululemon shares.

Top 9 Apps for Option Traders

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Discover some of the most popular apps that options traders use to stay on top of market opportunities and manage their investments.

Can GameStop Survive Another Bad Quarter?

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GameStop's bearish technicals have grown so extreme that the odds now favor an oversold rally after this week's second quarter report.

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Play for Gains in Mobile Gaming Stocks

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Growing user demand continues to support mobile gaming stocks. These trading tactics could help you play three industry leaders.

Big Buying in Stocks Should Lift Markets in Near Term

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Although September is normally a choppy month, big money buying and low rates offer some reasons for short-term bullishness.

Six Gentrifying Neighborhoods in Los Angeles

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If you want to own a home in L.A. that doesn't cost $1million, you might start your search in one of these neighborhoods.

U.S. Banks Dominate After 2008 Crisis Amid Uncertain Growth Outlook

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The biggest U.S. banks have grown bigger since the 2008 financial crisis, and now analysts are downgrading their stocks as recessionary fears rise.

How Bitcoin Has Become a Classic Hedge for U.S.–China Trade War

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Bitcoin and the Chinese yuan are moving in opposite directions as the trade war escalates and cryptocurrencies gain more widespread acceptance.

How Does Spotify Make Money?

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Spotify, the largest global music streaming subscription service, recently listed on NYSE. Here is a look at how its financials work.

5 Steps To A Small Business Marketing Plan

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Here are some tips for marketing your small business.

Expected Return vs. Standard Deviation

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Expected return and standard deviation are two statistical measures that can be used to analyze a portfolio.

What Did it Mean to "Own a Seat" on the New York Stock Exchange?

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Before the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) went public, you could buy a seat to it, meaning you could trade for yourself or others on its floor.

GE Subsidiaries: List of Mergers and Acquisitions

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General Electric is one of the largest and, at times, most profitable multinational conglomerate in the U.S. These subsidiaries and acquisitions represent some of GE's key operational segments.

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What are some examples of current liabilities?

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Look at some common examples of current liabilities a company may owe within a year or less in order to accurately assess a company's stability.

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Can My Company Ever Be Entitled to Take My 401(K)?

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Find out why your employer may be able to take part of your 401(k) if you leave your employment too soon, including how different types of vesting schedules work.

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How Education and Training Affect the Economy

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Education and training benefit not only the worker, but also the employer, and the country as a whole.

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What Is Arbitrage?

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Arbitrage is buying a security in one market and simultaneously selling it in another at a higher price, profiting from the temporary difference in prices.

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3 Ways to Get Social Security Benefits

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Social Security isn't just for retirement. It's also for survivors and people with disabilities. Learn about all three benefits here.

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Top 10 Companies Owned by Samsung

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Samsung has established itself as one of the largest companies in the world through acquiring and managing subsidiaries in various industries and locations.

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Most Valuable Career Skills of 2019

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Having the right career skills can make you more competitive and successful, whatever your job or field. Here are those most prized by employers in 2019.

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economic news of india - world economic news - economics news for students - indian economy news

economic news of india - world economic news - economics news for students - indian economy news


India's top mortgage lender may change the loan rule book

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MUMBAI: Housing Development Finance Corp (HDFC Ltd), the country's largest mortgage lender, is considering a plan to link interest rates to external benchmarks, although the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) hasn't mandated this for housing finance companies (HFCs).The home financier is looking to link both loans and liabilities as this will protect interest margins, HDFC vice chairman Keki Mistry told ET. For liabilities, it may engage in aggressive trades in interest-rate swaps, a market mechanism in which a trader exchanges fixed-rate payments for floating rates."We will still examine such loan products in our next asset liability committee (ALCO) meeting to be held in the next two weeks," Mistry said. "We would come up with external benchmark-linked loan products only when we are able to match the same mechanism on our liabilities side."AUM Increases 13%He pointed out the latest move on linking bank interest rates to external benchmarks does not apply to HFCs.HDFC's total assets under management rose 13% to Rs 4.76 lakh crore as of June 30. Home borrowers account for about three-fourths of the loans while construction finance, lease rental discounting and corporate loans make up the rest of the loan book. 71073380 The company raises money through a combination of bonds, public deposits, overseas credit and vanilla term loans. The home financier meets nearly half of its fund requirement through debt securities. Public deposits form 31% of the borrowing book."Swapping part of our liabilities should be with external benchmarks to which all other HFC loans are linked," Mistry said. "If we raise money via bonds we should be able to swap it."RBI MandateLast week, the RBI mandated that banks should link home, auto and micro, small and medium enterprise (MSME) loans to external benchmarks such as the repo rate, at which banks borrow shortterm money from the central bank, and treasury bills. The faster transmission of RBI rate action is the primary motive behind the move that will be effective October 1. The central bank has cut its policy rate by 110 basis points this year in a bid to push credit expansion to spur investment and help with economic revival. A basis point is 0.01 percentage point.Banks face the threat of contracting interest rate margins if they only link assets to external benchmarks and not deposits. State Bank of India cut deposit and lending rates on Monday.The No. 1 mortgage lender is better placed than some of its peers."HDFC is better placed with about 50% of borrowings linked to floating rates than LICHF's (LIC Housing Finance)--about 22%," said Emkay Global analyst Jignesh Shial in a note. "However, margin pressure on both companies is inevitable. We appreciate HDFC's diversified asset and liability franchise, consistency in spreads, and healthy provision coverage that smoothen risks of any future defaults."According to the Emkay report, standalone lending for HDFC contributes 53% to the total value, providing further comfort. The lender continues to see rising credit demand from buyers looking for homes to stay in, as opposed to speculators. The government has set a target of Housing for All by 2022.

Slowdown won't delay your festive bonus

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KOLKATA | NEW DELHI: India Inc is unlikely to curtail or delay payout of festival bonus to employees despite the slowdown, raising hope among consumer goods companies and retailers that the move might boost sentiment & drive up purchases in the festive season.Leading employers across sectors such as Hindustan Unilever, ITC, Godrej Group, Axis Bank, Future Group, Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India, Maruti Suzuki, RPG Group, BigBasket, Grofers, Puma, Panasonic and Dixon Technologies are handing out bonuses to employees, several company and industry executives said.The incentive includes either a special bonus for the festive season or a sales incentive or bonus payout for white-collar executives and managers in September-October. The blue-collar workforce, mostly in factories and on shop floors, too will receive the statutory bonus that is a portion of their basic pay.Onam Payouts Boosted SalesFirms and consumer goods makers pointed out that the payouts for Onam in Kerala — made in the first week of September — had led to a 3-4% rise in sales over last year, tempering initial fears of a washout during the festival season. 71073424 Asked about the impact of festive payouts, ITC executive director B Sumant said the upcoming season will provide opportunities for consumption to expand.Others said more steps were needed to revive consumption. Godrej Appliances business head Kamal Nandi said festive bonus alone may not be sufficient to boost sentiment unless the government announces a bigger stimulus package. "A big stimulus can bring positivity among consumers, which will then boost consumption. Otherwise, the festive payout will go into conservation."Companies are also sceptical about a pick-up in rural demand, which has slipped into a trough in the past few years. India Inc, however, is hoping that the first good monsoon in five years will revive rural sentiment. Marico MD Saugata Gupta said that while some categories could see an uptick in demand, the overall slowdown in sales will take some more time to improve. "Consumption continues to be soft, but we expect the monsoon and government steps may boost consumption after 2-3 months," he said.Indian consumers are cutting down purchases amid an economic slowdown and volatile stock markets. The GDP growth rate fell to six-year low of 5% in the June quarter. International Monetary Fund and Asian Development Bank have lowered growth forecasts for FY20 to around 7% on a weaker-than-expected outlook for domestic demand and concerns around fiscal shortfall."There is no change to our intent to pay, quantum to pay or schedule to pay," said S Venkatesh, president, group HR, at RPG Enterprises.Axis Bank's HR head Rajkamal Vempati said the bank will make incentive payouts to its white-collar sales force around October. "The quantum of incentives will be in line with other years," he said.Recruitment and staffing firm CIEL HR Services' CEO Aditya Narayan Mishra said most companies would pay out sales incentives and statutory bonuses around October. The larger ones, he said, will not delay payouts to keep negative sentiment at bay.'Auto sector in trouble'"However, the auto sector is likely to face trouble, given that companies are shutting production lines for a few days. Some of these companies may defer bonuses to the blue-collar workforce. Some smaller companies may also delay payouts, since they are more likely to face liquidity issues," Mishra said.Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India (HMSI) said the Diwali bonus is a part of the wage agreement which the company inks with permanent workers and that the payouts will not be held back."It is a legal compliance. Besides, automotive is a cyclical business, there are ups and down in the industry. We do not want to affect the morale of our workers by holding back or cutting down on any such incentive," said Harbhajan Singh, director general, corporate affairs, HMSI.A spokesperson for Maruti Suzuki India said that despite "the current tough situation, the company will keep the same payment policy for festivals as usual".Mahindra & Mahindra declined to comment.Several HR experts said senior management employees are unlikely to get any payouts this year and a clutch of companies are instead thinking of rewarding them with employee stock option plans (Esops).India's festive season — which begins with Ganesh Chaturthi — is the biggest shopping period, accounting for 35-40% of the annual sales of consumer-facing companies.While FMCG, apparel and retail segments have been battling a slowdown in consumption for over three quarters now, smartphone and home appliances industries saw a dip in sales beginning July. Car sales fell to a twodecade low in August.

Debt investor? This should bother you

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Mumbai: Investors in mutual fund debt plans, especially liquid schemes, may have to brace for more uncertainty with regard to returns as the Securities and Exchange Board of India may make it mandatory for these debt products to assign the latest market price to all their bond investments from April 1.Currently, only debt papers with a maturity of over 30 days need to be valued on a mark-to market basis. Most fund houses value the rest of the papers based on amortisation.The shift is being undertaken to ensure the net asset value (NAV) of the fixed income schemes reflect the portfolio's fair value. All categories of debt MFs including liquid funds and ultra short-term funds, which predominantly invest in debt papers with maturity below 30 days, will be impacted by the new method of calculation."Valuation of debt and money market instruments based on amortisation shall be dispensed with and shall completely shift to mark-to-market valuation with effect from April 1, 2020," said minutes of the Sebi board meeting held on August 21. The move is aimed at boosting transparency in bond funds and aligning their values to the market prices.For investors in fixed income schemes, this change in valuation method would mean NAV would fluctuate more frequently as prices could swing in the event of uncertain markets or changes in credit ratings.Capturing market risksThe move could dim the popularity of products such as liquid schemes, where investors usually park their idle money. The assets managed by the liquid category of mutual funds was Rs 5.49 lakh crore as on August 31. Ultra short-term schemes managed money worth Rs 90,293 crore."Until now, in the case of securities with maturity less than 30 days, interest used to be amortised over the remaining period," said a fund manager with a domestic mutual fund. "But now every day prices are released by the rating agencies. Those prices will be used for valuing securities and calculating NAV." 71073829 Daily bond prices in India are provided by credit rating agencies in the absence of an active corporate debt market. The NAV of an equity fund is calculated daily based on the closing price of the shares. MFs use amortisation method to determine the daily price of the bonds.Consider a mutual fund which has invested Rs 100 crore in debt papers of a company 'A' with a coupon rate of 10% and the tenure of the bond is 30 days. Since the fair market price of these bonds isn't available, the fund house would divide the total interest receivable during maturity with the tenure of the bond, i.e. in this case 0.33%, and then accrue it daily. Hence, the value of the bond would be Rs 100.33 crore on the 30th day, Rs 100.66 crore on the 29th, Rs 100.99 on 28th and so on."In the event of a credit deterioration, a fund should mark down the value of security to reflect its true picture. In the current scenario that does not happen till the security defaults," said the fund manager of another domestic fund house.The current methodology doesn't capture the real market risks. For instance, consider if the bonds of 'A' have been downgraded from AAA to say B+. In the current method, the NAV of the funds which have exposure to this paper will not be able to capture the impact of the downgrade in the NAV. Instead, they would add the interest for NAV calculation. However, in the mark-to-market valuation method, the downgrade will be captured in the price calculation and hence NAVs of the funds having exposure to 'A' will take a hit. Until last year, only debt papers with maturity of over 60 days were required to value the investments on a mark-to-market basis.

Apple iPhone 11 to cost Rs 64,900 in India

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CUPERTINO (CALIFORNIA): Apple has announced India pricing of newly-launched iPhones - available in the country from September 27 - and the starting iPhone 11 model (64GB) with dual camera rear setup will cost you Rs 64,900.iPhone 11 will be available in 64GB, 128GB and 256GB models in purple, green, yellow, black, white and PRODUCT (RED), starting at Rs 64,900.iPhone 11 Pro and iPhone 11 Pro Max with triple camera set-up will be available in 64GB, 256GB and 512GB models in midnight green, space gray, silver and gold, starting at Rs 99,900 and Rs 109,900 respectively. 71073552 Apple Watch Series 5 (GPS) starts at Rs 40,900 and Apple Watch Series 5 (GPS + Cellular) starts at Rs 49,900.Apple TV+ will be available on the Apple TV app for Rs 99 per month with a seven-day free trial. Starting from Tuesday, customers who purchase any iPhone can enjoy one year of Apple TV+ for free. 71073576 The gaming service Apple Arcade on the App Store will be available with iOS 13 as a subscription for Rs 99 per month and is launching with a one-month free trial.Users get unlimited access to the entire catalog of over 100 new, exclusive games, all playable across iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, Mac and Apple TV.iOS 13 will be available on September 19 as a free software update for iPhone 6s and later. Additional software features will be available on September 30 with iOS 13.1, announced Apple. 71073562

CVC Capital, Carlyle could be shortlisted for Piramal, TPG stake in Shriram Capital

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Mumbai: CVC Capital and Carlyle could make the shortlist for the 30 per cent Shriram Capital stake that Piramal Enterprises and private equity fund TPG are selling, multiple people aware of the bids told ET. Five PE funds, including Advent, Blackstone and Brookfield, had submitted initial offers."CVC Capital and Carlyle are likely to be shortlisted for the stake sale by PEL and TPG," said a source close to the development. "Advent has invested in another NBFC. So, it may not go ahead with this deal."Advent International has invested Rs 1,000 crore via its affiliate Jomei Investment in Aditya Birla capital last week.CVC Capital and Carlyle declined to comment. Other private equity funds in the race and the two sellers could not be immediately reached.Existing investors in TPG Capital and Piramal Enterprises are looking to exit the financial services firm. The transaction is likely to value the unlisted Shriram Capital at around Rs 18,000-20,000 crore, sources said, pegging the combined holding of TPG and Piramal group at around Rs 6,000-7,000 crore. 71074285 "The due diligence process is on and now PE funds are getting into details of these unlisted companies," said another source. "Investors want to know their role in the organisational structure after the companies are merged. The merger discussions are in an early stage and currently potential synergies are being evaluated."The new investments will depend on the management width that Shriram Capital will be able to offer, said another source. Over the last six years, Piramal has not been able to take full management control despite his initial investment of Rs 4,600 crore in the Chennai-based Shriram group.Shriram Capital Limited is the holding company for the financial services businesses. These include Shriram Transport Finance and Shriram City Union, and insurance entities Shriram Life and Shriram General.In 2014, the Mumbai-based Piramal group bought a 20 per cent stake in Shriram Capital for Rs 2,014 crore. TPG Capital holds a 9 per cent stake in Shriram Capital, while South Africa-based Sanlam Group owns 26 per cent, and the Shriram Ownership Trust has as much as 45 per cent in the company.Piramal, which first backed Shriram Transport Finance in 2013, sold its entire 9.96 per cent stake in the company for Rs 2,300 crore. It has another 10 per cent stake in Shriram City Union Finance, which is presently valued at Rs 8,763 crore.

Auto crisis more due to overproduction than slowdown in economy: Rajiv Bajaj

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Mumbai: The current crisis in the automobile industry in the country is largely due to "overproduction and stocking" by companies and to a small extent to the economic slowdown, and there's no need for a GST cut, Bajaj Auto managing director Rajiv Bajaj has said.His statement comes days before the GST Council is scheduled to convene on September 20 when, among other things, it is expected to take a call on the industry's demand for a cut in goods and service tax on automobiles.The industry is now rapidly correcting the stock levels for Bharat Stage-VI emission norms and the problem will be sorted by November, Bajaj said."There's no industry that keeps growing forever without correction, so no point chasing that mirage," Bajaj said in an interaction with ET. "The answer lies in being global so that the company doesn't fall sick if one market catches flu."Bajaj Auto, the country's third largest motorcycle maker, exports one out of every two motorcycles it produces.Automobile sales have declined by over 30 per cent in certain categories during July and August, of which only 5-7 per cent decline in sales volumes is due to economic reasons, over which companies have little control, Bajaj said. 71073636 "Every industry has its up and down cycles. It may take a year, maybe two, for it to correct," Bajaj said. "Nobody knows how long this will last, but it certainly doesn't deserve a GST cut."According to him, automakers in the country caused the current situation upon themselves due to overproduction of vehicles based on growth forecasts."They roll the dice sans any logic," Bajaj told ET. "The result is a matter of luck-by-chance. We don't waste time or money on forecasts. We simply expand capacity once we're close to full."If a GST relief is to be given, it should be limited to vehicles compliant with the cleaner BSVI emission norms, he said, reiterating his earlier stance.Most players in the automobile industry have been lobbying for an immediate reduction in GST levied on vehicles to 18 per cent from 28 per cent to boost demand, but the Bajaj Auto boss had voiced concern that such a move will result in a blockage of dealers' money.Dealers had already paid GST at the higher rate while purchasing their existing inventory from manufacturers and customers would not want to pay the same post any announcement on GST cut, he had said last month. Hence, Bajaj had argued, a GST cut should be limited to BS-VI compliant vehicles to avoid such a scenario. It would also partially absorb the sharp increase in the prices of vehicles as they become compliant to the new emission norms, he had said.

Buy sovereign gold bonds, limit exposure to 5-10% of portfolio

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Wealth managers believe investors looking to taken an exposure to gold in their portfolio could consider the 2019-20 Series IV of sovereign gold bonds which is open for subscription till September 13, at a price of Rs 3,840 per gram for digital payments and Rs 3890 per gram for payments through physical mode."The US markets are in its 10th year of bull run and look overvalued. Globally we are in an environment where there are negative interest rates in many countries. Investors should have an allocation of 5-10% gold in their portfolio as an insurance against global uncertainty and rupee depreciation," says Ashish Shanker, head (Investment Advisory), Motilal Oswal Wealth Management. Financial planners also recommend gold due to its low correlation with traditional asset class like equity and debt.Gold prices have moved up sharply in the last one year going up by 25% and it has been one of the best performing asset class. The S&P BSE Sensex has lost 3.22%, while an investment in a liquid fund earned 6.73%. However over a 3 year and 5 year period, the yellow metal has gained only 5.93% and 5.92% respectively.Sovereign gold bonds are a good option to take exposure to gold as an asset class, believe financial planners. "Gold bonds do not have any expense and investors earn an additional 2.5% interest every year and is one of the best way to take exposure to gold," says Amol Joshi, Founder, Plan Rupee. Gold bonds score on the taxation front as they do not attract capital gains tax if held till maturity. He advises investors to hold them till maturity as even though they are listed on the BSE and NSE liquidity could be low and prices could get a lower price in the secondary markets. Sovereign gold bonds have a tenor of eight years with investors having the option to exit after the fifth year on interest payment dates. The redemption price will be the simple average of the closing price of gold for the previous three days.

Goldman Sachs cuts 2019 oil demand growth forecast to 1m bpd

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Goldman Sachs has lowered its forecast on 2019 oil demand growth, citing reduced demand from India, Japan, other non-OECD Asian regions, the Middle East and Latin America. The Wall Street bank revised its forecast down to 1 million barrels per day (bpd), from 1.1 million bpd but left its 2020 demand growth estimate broadly unchanged at 1.4 million bpd. However, it stuck to its 2020 price forecast for Brent crude at $60 a barrel, flagging the willingness of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to sacrifice market share. "Our oil supply-demand outlook for 2020 calls for additional OPEC production cuts to keep inventories near normal," Goldman analysts wrote in a note dated Sept. 9. "We continue to expect OPEC will sacrifice market share in line with leadership commentary at its June meeting, which we believe will lead to Brent prices of around $60/bbl." Crude oil prices have shed nearly 20% from 2019 highs hit in April, partly because of an escalating trade war between the United States and China, which is expected to hurt the global economy and, in turn, demand for oil. Other banks, including Morgan Stanley and Barclays, have also flagged risks to oil demand as a result of economic uncertainties. Morgan Stanley last month lowered its oil price and demand forecasts for the rest of the year, citing a weaker economic outlook, faltering demand and higher shale oil output.

Indian linguistic diversity challenged Alexa to be better: Amazon executive

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BENGALURU: India's linguistic diversity made it one of the most challenging markets for Alexa, but pushed Amazon's voice assistant to also become a fundamentally better product, a senior executive at the US-based technology giant told ET.India has an incredible diversity of languages, vocabulary, dialects and pronunciations. Besides, Indians tend to pose mixed language queries to Alexa – a behaviour that is unique to India."Developing Alexa for India was the most challenging experience for language processing, but also the most rewarding experience," said Prem Natarajan, Vice President, Alexa AI & Head - Natural Understanding. "Awesome thing is that when you are challenging problems for a diverse country like India, it turns out you are developing techniques that benefit others across the world."India was the fourth country after the US, the UK and Germany in which the voice assistant was launched, back in October 2017. Amazon wants artificial intelligence-driven Alexa to be an extension of its product offerings of ecommerce, cloud, music and entertainment."A language can exhibit variations in dialects, vocabulary, accent, pronunciation. In most parts of the world, you see broad clusters of these. In India, language is individual. It is far more granular. This means, the learning challenge in India is much greater," Natarajan said.In other parts of the world, Alexa looks at natural language understanding as single language modelling or processing, but in India it thinks of it as multi-lingual modelling or processing for every component of the system.Every time Alexa is asked a question, it converts the question into text to search for an answer. Once Alexa gets the answer, it converts the text back into speech."The underlying technology is neural text to speech, but instead of using a single language model during generation we have to use multiple language models and shift back and forth between different language models," Natarajan said.Another challenge that Alexa specifically faces in India is a lack of standard English spelling for regional words. There are multiple spelling and pronunciations for names, movies, songs and places. To solve for this, Alexa had to develop a deeper directory of phonetic search for India."In the West, there is a lot of standardisation. Search problem in India becomes a science problem because I have to come up with ways for search techniques to be robust with variation. In India, you can't have a complete vocabulary," he said.

High BP, blood sugar ail Mumbai's police force

High BP, blood sugar ail Mumbai's police force
40% of those screened found hit by lifestyle ailments

Source: DI

To contest or not to contest, Maharashtra Navnirman Sena leaves cadre guessing

To contest or not to contest, Maharashtra Navnirman Sena leaves cadre guessing
As Assembly polls near, functionaries confused over uncertainty surrounding party's future

Source: DI

J&K: CRPF helpline receives 34K calls

J&K: CRPF helpline receives 34K calls
During the security clampdown that came into effect with the abrogation of special status to Jammu and Kashmir on August 5, the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) through its Madadgaar app handled 34,274 calls (both incoming and outgoing) to let the people in the valley know about the well-being of their loved ones, claimed CRPF on Tuesday.

Source: DI

Incessant rains bring Ahmedabad to its knees

Incessant rains bring Ahmedabad to its knees
Waterlogging was reported in several areas; vehicular traffic and pedestrian movement was disrupted due to flooding of roads

Source: DI

Mom of 11 pregnant for 17th time in Maharashtra's Beed

Mom of 11 pregnant for 17th time in Maharashtra's Beed
She has also had five miscarriages over the past several years

Source: DI

Today’s Horoscope — Daily Horoscope for Wednesday, September 11, 2019



Source: FPJ

Donald Trump ousts John Bolton as National Security Adviser

Donald Trump ousts John Bolton as National Security Adviser


Source: TIE

Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu oppose advance power payments

Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu oppose advance power payments
State-run electricity distribution companies (discoms) of Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu have opposed the central government panel's recommendation to make advance payments to power producers.

Source: TFE

Joint panel to be formed: India, Asean to review free trade agreement

Joint panel to be formed: India, Asean to review free trade agreement
India and the 10-member bloc of South-East Asian nations have decided to review their free trade agreement (FTA) in goods that was signed in 2009.

Source: TFE

Being under depression, woman kills six-year-old US-born daughter in Pune

Being under depression, woman kills six-year-old US-born daughter in Pune
The girl was born in the United States, and hence a citizen of the country, because of which the news of her death has been shared with the US embassy

Source: DI

Sonia Gandhi meets Sharad Pawar ahead of Maharashtra Assembly polls

Sonia Gandhi meets Sharad Pawar ahead of Maharashtra Assembly polls
The meeting between two went on for around half-an-hour to check on the preparedness of upcoming election

Source: DI

How to of the Day

How to of the Day


How to Use a Lawn Edger

Posted: 10 Sep 2019 05:00 PM PDT

A lawn edger is a tool that you can use to trim the grass on the very edge of a lawn or flowerbed that the lawnmower may not be able to reach. Having a well-trimmed edge around your lawn or flowerbed will make it look well cared-for and can prevent unruly weeds from invading your lawn. Lawn edgers are fairly diverse tools that can be used to create a neat edge around your flower beds, to expand an existing flower bed, or to mark out the edges of a new flowerbed or vegetable bed.

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Choosing the Best Edger for Your Type of Lawn

  1. Purchase an electric stick edger for a simple, straightforward model. Electrically powered stick edgers are the most popular type for a reason: they are relatively lightweight and well suited for clearing up the edges around average-sized lawns, gardens, and flower beds. Some electrical edgers do need to be physically plugged into an outlet (so plan to invest in extension cords), but others are powered by a small rechargeable battery.[1]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • Electrical edgers are also a budget-friendly option. You can find them at hardware stores or home-improvement stores, and they typically cost as little as $30–40 USD.
  2. Opt for a gas-powered stick edger to clear heavier brush. As you'd expect, gas-powered stick edgers are much heavier and louder than their electric counterparts. However, they are also quite a bit more powerful. If your lawn is covered in weeds, hedges, and other rough brambles—or if you just have a very large lawn to clean up—you may need the power of a gas edger to get the job done.[2]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 2 Version 3.jpg
    • Gas edgers come with either 2- or 4-cylinder motors; the larger 4-cylinder motors run cleaner than the smaller engines but weigh more and are more pricey.
    • You can find gas edgers at hardware stores for around $150–180 USD.
  3. Use a manual blade edger if you have a small lawn to edge. A manual lawn edger comprises a wooden or metal pole with a semi-circular blade at the end. If you have a small lawn or are planning to edge around 1 or 2 small flower beds, a manual edger is the practical choice. Manual edgers come with either a flat blade, which are ideal for cutting along lawn edges, or blades with scoop-cut edges, which are great for edging around delicate flower beds. [3]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Manual edgers are the cheapest, since they have no motor and require no fuel. You can find manual edgers at home-improvement or hardware stores for around $20 USD.
    • You'll get quite a workout using a manual edger, too, which could be a positive or negative thing depending on the region you live in and the season in which you're edging the lawn.
  4. Choose a walk-behind wheeled edger if you have a large lawn. If you have a huge expanse of grass that you want to trim up, a large walk-behind edger is your best bet. These tools—which you'll use just like a lawnmower—are a good choice for edging around large trees and substantial flower beds. Walk-behind wheeled edgers are also great for trimming the grass along a long stretch of sidewalk.[4]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    • Keep in mind that wheeled edgers only work on flat ground. If you have a sloped or rolling backyard, avoid using a walk-behind edger.
    • These large edgers can cost as much as $400 USD. If the large price tag deters you, consider renting one from your local hardware or landscape-supply store.

[Edit]Clearing Your Lawn and Marking a Path

  1. Wear protective clothing and ear plugs to keep yourself safe. Before you start working on the lawn, put on a pair of long pants and heavy boots or shoes. These will protect you in case you accidentally hit your leg or foot with the edger. Also put in a pair of protective earplugs or wear sound-blocking earmuffs to block the loud sounds of the edger if you're using a gas-powered model.[5]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 5 Version 2.jpg
    • Also wear protective goggles or eyewear, to keep your eyes safe from any flying debris the edger may kick up. If you don't already have a pair of protective goggles or ear plugs, purchase them at a local hardware store.
  2. Mow the entire lawn before you start trimming the edges. Mowing your lawn before cleaning up the edges will save you time and effort in the long run. If you trim the edges of your lawn first and mow second, you could end up with edges dramatically longer or shorter than the majority of the lawn. This would give your lawn an unfinished, sloppy look.[6]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 6 Version 2.jpg
    • Cleaning up the edges after you mow also gives you the opportunity to trim any patchy spots you may have missed while mowing.
  3. Mark out the path you'll cut along with a rope or hose. Take a long piece of rope or section of hose and lay it out along the path you'll be edging. Leave a space of about between your marker and the edge of the sidewalk or flower bed. When you're trimming the grass, you'll aim the edger's blade for that patch of exposed grass.[7]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 7 Version 2.jpg
    • Marking out the path will help keep you on track while you cut trim the edges. Once you've edged the lawn 3 or 4 times and have gotten some experience, you won't need to mark the path.
  4. Remove large roots and other obstacles from the path you'll edge. Before you begin to edge around your lawn or flower bed, take a walk along the path your just marked and pull up any rocks, stones, or other firm obstacles. A rock could easily dent or damage the blade of your edger, so make sure the path is clear before you start trimming the grass.
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 8 Version 2.jpg
    • If you're edging along a well-manicured yard, there probably won't be stray rocks. However, there could be rocks if you're trimming near a sidewalk or vegetable patch.
    • Also make sure you aren't going to be digging where there are power or water lines or where there needs to be manhole access to sewer pipes.

[Edit]Edging Your Lawn

  1. Position the edge of your tool right against the cement. You want the edger to always be within about of the edge of the lawn, flower bed, or vegetable patch you're edging around. If you veer off course while you're edging and come more than away, you'll end up cutting a eyesore of a line through the grass.[8]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 9 Version 2.jpg
    • This is where your marking will come in handy. Follow the guide closely and you'll cut right along the edge of the lawn!
  2. Press the blade down with your foot for a manual edger. If you're using a manual edger, use your leg strength to push the blade down into the soil. Hold the stick firmly and set your foot on the edger tool. Push down with your foot to cut through the soil, and rock the blade gently to cut through the turf. It's also helpful to pry the cut area open slightly by twisting the blade a little to the right and left. This lets you see the line you just cut.[9]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 10 Version 2.jpg
    • Then, pick up the blade and move it a few inches, and make your next incision.
  3. Turn on the engine and walk slowly forward with a motorized edger. If you're using a gas or electric edging tool, turn on the engine to activate the cutting blades. Walk slowly forward as the tool cuts into the ground, and make sure to cut along the exact path that you marked out earlier. Engage your core muscles as you push to maintain control over the edger.[10]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 11 Version 2.jpg
    • It's important to walk slowly, especially the first few times you use a lawn edger. The faster you walk, the more likely you are to inadvertently wobble or go off course.
  4. Cut about deep to maintain an even cut. When you're new to landscape edging, aiming for a deep channel is a good rule of thumb. A line of this depth will be deep enough to control the spread of grass roots, but not deep enough to be easily visible and disrupt the appearance of the lawn.[11]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 12 Version 2.jpg
    • Most motorized lawn edging tools will have a knob or switch you can adjust to change the depth to which the blade cuts.
    • If you're using a manual edger, of course, you can cut deeper than this. There's not much reason to dig a deeper line, though; you're only trying to clear grass away from the edge of the yard, not dig a trench.
  5. Clear away cut grass and check that you're edging straight. Every , take a quick break to brush the trimmings off of the line you just cut. Once the line is clearly visible, check to make sure that the line is straight and that you haven't deviated at all from the path you marked out earlier.[12]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 13 Version 2.jpg
    • If you're edging through heavy brush or undergrowth, you could use a strong rake to clear a lot of debris off at once.
  6. Trim back the grass on the edges of the lawn with hand shears. Once you've cut along the entire edge of the lawn or flower bed, all that you need to do is to trim up any long, unkempt grass blades. Go along the route that you just edged, and use a pair of hand shears to cut back the grass so it fades into the lawn. This will give the edge a natural, groomed look.[13]
    Use a Lawn Edger Step 14 Version 2.jpg
    • If you don't have a pair of hand shears, you could also use an electric weed whacker or lawn trimmer.

[Edit]Tips

  • Edgers are commonly used to cut the grass along the edge of a sidewalk. Large lawnmowers typically cannot trim the right next to the sidewalk, but an edger can easily trim this grass.
  • It's best to edge around the outskirts of your lawn or flower bed when the ground is fairly moist, as it will be easier to cut through than dry earth. If you live in a cold climate, avoid edging your beds in winter when the ground is likely to be frozen hard and difficult to work.
  • Avoid marking your edging path with spray paint. While some people use paint, it can create a problem if you accidentally spray along the wrong patch of grass or if the wind blows the spray away.[14]

[Edit]Video

[Edit]References

How to Help a Suicidal Friend

Posted: 10 Sep 2019 09:00 AM PDT

Having a friend who you believe to be considering suicide is not to be taken lightly. Being suicidal is a temporary state that appears as an answer to severe depression, and the act of taking one's own life is preventable when the correct measures are taken.[1] As a friend, you can potentially save a life by paying attention to warning signs of suicide (in addition to the ones you already know about), making your friend feel supported, and knowing when and how to get outside help. If your friend is in immediate danger call 911, or 1-800-SUICIDE to talk to professionals and access necessary resources.

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Recognizing the Signs

  1. Spot patterns of suicidal thought.[2] The most important part of prevention is recognition of warning signs. Suicidal thoughts usually include two or more of the following patterns:[3]
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 1 Version 3.jpg
    • Frequent dwelling on a thought obsessively
    • Believing that there is no hope, and no way to end the pain other than committing suicide.
    • Viewing life as meaningless, or out of control.
    • Feeling as though one's brain is in a fog that makes concentration difficult
  2. Recognize suicidal emotions. Many emotional changes accompany suicidal thought, and the following changes are common warning signs[4]:
    Talk to a Suicidal Friend Step 7 Version 3.jpg
    • Extreme mood swings
    • Feelings of loneliness and isolation, even in the presence of others
    • Feelings of worthlessness, shame, guilt, self-hatred, and the sense that no one cares.
    • Becoming sad, withdrawn, tired, apathetic, anxious, irritable, or prone to angry outbursts.
  3. Watch for suggestive comments. Be alert to statements that echo the patterns of thoughts and feelings that accompany suicidality. The following are common to hear from a suicidal person[5]:
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 3 Version 3.jpg
    • "Life isn't worth living."
    • "You (or another friend or family member) would be better off without me."
    • "Don't worry, I won't be around to deal with that."
    • "You'll be sorry when I'm gone."
    • "I won't be in your way much longer."
    • "I just can't deal with everything — what's the point?"
    • "I won't be a burden much longer."
    • "There's nothing I can do to change anything."
    • "I'd be better off dead."
    • "I feel like there is no way out."
    • "I never should have been born".
  4. Be wary of sudden improvement in mood. Many people who go through with suicide do so when they appear to be feeling significantly better than they have been.[6] You may be seeing the peaceful resoluteness of making the decision to end their life, and should take preventative steps immediately.
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 4 Version 3.jpg
  5. Notice unusual behavior. You can observe many behavioral changes in suicidal individuals. If you see at least a few of the following, you may have cause for concern.[7]:
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 5 Version 3.jpg
    • Declining performance in school, work, or other activities (or occasionally the opposite, filling up time with extra duties and responsibilities)
    • Social isolation
    • Little or no interest in sex, friends, or previously enjoyable activities
    • Carelessness about personal welfare and deteriorating physical appearance
    • Alterations in either direction in sleeping or eating habits. Look for extremes like self-starvation, poor dietary management, or inattention to medical orders (especially in the elderly)
    • Drastic changes to established routines.
    • Lethargy and withdrawal.
  6. Recognize signs of suicide planning.[8] Having a plan already in place can mean that a successful attempt could happen soon. Watch for all of the following actions:[9]
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 6 Version 3.jpg
    • Tying up loose ends (i.e. saying goodbye to loved ones, giving away valuable belongings, arranging finances)
    • Making reckless or passive decisions about important things
    • Gathering the means to commit suicide, like pill bottles, medications, and weapons

[Edit]Talking to your Suicidal Friend

  1. Set a comfortable scene. Talking about possible suicide can be a very tense subject, especially for your friend who may also have feelings of guilt and shame associated with their suffering. Initiate a conversation without the presence of distractions. Choose a relaxed and familiar environment if possible.
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 7 Version 3.jpg
  2. Broach the issue of suicide. The following are good questions that you can use to start the conversation:[10]
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 8 Version 3.jpg
    • "How are you coping with what's been happening in your life?"
    • "Do you ever feel like just giving up?"
    • "Do you think often about dying?"
    • "Are you considering hurting yourself?"
    • "Are you thinking about suicide?"
    • "Have you ever tried to harm yourself before?"
  3. Speak clearly and openly. Be as specific as possible to avoid sounding accusatory. For example, instead of saying something like "You always talk about how impossible everything is", try detailed observations like "I have noticed in the past few months that things you used to enjoy, like spending time with your kids, does not seem to improve your mood much."
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 9 Version 3.jpg
    • Openly embrace the topic as another way to show how much you care. If you are direct about your concern, you will give off a sense of a justified sense of urgency.
    • It is a common myth that bringing up suicide will put the idea into a person's mind. In fact, speaking openly about suicide can help your friend realize that there are other options available.[11]
    • Stay on topic as best you can. Your friend might try to dismiss your concern by looking at you with confusion or making you feel silly for bringing it up. But, don't be afraid to be persistent in your concern--especially in light of recognizing warning signs.
  4. Avoid stigmatizing suicide.[12] Keep an open mind that does not judge the friend's feelings or decisions. You may think your friend is incorrect in their reasoning or that their situation is not bad enough that they should want to commit suicide. However, understand that you can't fully understand.
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 10 Version 3.jpg
    • The belief that suicide is selfish, crazy, or morally defective is widely circulated in our culture. Be aware that suicidality is the result of a treatable condition for which your friend is not at fault.[13]
  5. Stay away from statements that can hurt. It's easy to think that we can help by offering our perspectives or opinion, but this isn't always the case. Be sure to avoid the following responses:
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 11 Version 3.jpg
    • Statements that dismiss feelings, like "things aren't really that bad."
    • Superficial comments that prompt feelings of shame and isolation, like "you have so much to live for," or "think about how much your suicide will hurt your family and friends."
    • Instead, show compassion by saying, "things must really be awful if you are feeling that way."
  6. Listen empathically. Let your talk be an opportunity for your friend to feel loved and supported. Try as best you can to non-judgmentally listen to your friend, putting yourself in their shoes. This will help you accept their feelings with warm, personal understanding. Make eye contact and use body language to show that you are really there to listen.[14]
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 12 Version 3.jpg
    • Let them talk for as long as they need. Even if you can think of many words of encouragement or reasons why they should cheer up, hold off. Create space for your friend to express themselves without cutting in to give your own opinion.
    • Validate feelings. It can be hard to come out and express feelings that you don't expect others to understand. Make your friend feel less alone by showing understanding and affirmation of these feelings.[15]
  7. Relay how much you care. Emotional support is a powerful suicide deterrent. Let your friend know that they are loved, thought about, and is an important part of your life. Project an attitude of respect and love to your friend throughout the conversation.
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 13 Version 2.jpg
    • This is your opportunity to tell your friend your perspective. Mention that suicide is a permanent solution to a solvable problem and that you and others are more than willing to help realize other possibilities.

[Edit]Preventing a Friend's Suicide

  1. Ask about means for self-harm. See if your friend has access to weapons or other methods for committing suicide. Try to ask without sounding patronizing or judgmental. This is an important question, since having a plan means the situation may be even more pressing than you may have believed.[16]
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 14 Version 2.jpg
  2. Eliminate potential means.[17] All guns should be removed from your friend's home. Using a gun is the most common method of committing suicide, and attempts are more likely to lead to deaths in homes with guns.[18] Also, be sure to throw out all prescription and nonprescription medicines that are not currently being used.
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 15 Version 2.jpg
    • If your friend is taking prescription medication, you may want to offer to keep it for them and give doses as needed.
  3. Request to be actively involved. Make an agreement with your friend that they will inform you if they are tempted to move forward with the act. Inform them of the actions you will take to carry out your part of the agreement, like calling for professional help. Absolutely do not make any commitments to your suicidal friend that you cannot keep for certain.
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 16 Version 2.jpg
    • Before doing this, ask yourself about the reality of how much you can manage to get involved, knowing that involvement can be a drain on emotions and time.
  4. Help gather resources. Know about support groups in the area, as well as information that will help you get a better sense of what drives people to suicide so that you can be as supportive as possible.
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 17 Version 2.jpg
    • There are many support groups available online and in-person. Search here for groups that address various problems that can contribute to suicidal feelings and provide information about other resources.[19]
  5. Be attentive. If your friend is at high, immediate risk for suicide, do not leave them alone until professional help arrives. Make sure that you or someone else stays with them at all times.[20]
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 18 Version 2.jpg
  6. Offer ongoing support. This can include time to talk and check in on how your friend is feeling or devoting more time to shared hobbies and activities. This sort of support will help your friend feel important to someone while they are recovering from the depression that causes suicidal thoughts.
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 19 Version 2.jpg

[Edit]Soliciting Outside Help

  1. Call 911. If your concern for your friend is immediate, do not hesitate to call 911. Do not try to handle suicide threats on your own, and absolutely do not assume that a friend talking about harming themselves is not serious.[21]
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 20 Version 2.jpg
  2. Call a suicide hotline.[22]A suicidal person needs immediate assistance from qualified mental health professionals. Again, call 911, 1-800-SUICIDE, or 1-800-273-TALK to avoid the need for you or other untrained individuals to act as the sole counselors to your friend.
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 21 Version 2.jpg
  3. Suggest therapy. Having regular sessions with a therapist about suicidal thoughts, feelings, and what triggers them can help prevent suicide attempts in depressed individuals. And, for those who have already attempted suicide, talk therapy can reduce risks of subsequent attempts by up to 50%.[23]
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 22 Version 2.jpg
  4. Inform others on a need-to-know basis. Enlist the help of other important people in your friend's life. If others are aware of the problem they will be able to be sensitive and stay on the lookout for warning signs. Make sure you only inform others of your friend's risk for suicide if you think they are capable of helping.[24]
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 23 Version 2.jpg
  5. Make sure you're coping, too. Playing a helping role in such a serious matter can be exhausting, stressful, and also frustrating. Make an effort to ensure that your own physical and emotional needs are being met. Talking about your feelings to people you trust will help you process the situation and understand your experience.[25]
    Help a Suicidal Friend Step 24 Version 2.jpg

[Edit]Tips

  • Here are some more suicide hotline resources.
  • Consider taking a safeTALK course to learn more about having an open conversation, or an ASSIST course for helping a suicidal individual.

[Edit]Warnings

  • Be aware that committing your friend involuntarily should only be a last resort used if you see the person using actual violence towards themselves or towards others.
  • Be careful when calling law enforcement. They are trained to protect others and themselves with lethal force if necessary. If the individual you are with has a tendency for violence or angry outbursts, a suicide by cop situation could occur.

[Edit]Related wikiHows

[Edit]References

  1. http://psychcentral.com/library/suicide_signs.htm
  2. http://www.helpguide.org/articles/suicide-prevention/suicide-prevention-helping-someone-who-is-suicidal.htm
  3. http://psychcentral.com/library/suicide_signs.htm
  4. http://www.metanoia.org/suicide/whattodo.htm
  5. http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2007/10/08/common-signs-of-someone-who-may-be-suicidal/
  6. http://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/neurological_institute/center-for-behavorial-health/patient-education/hic-recognizing-suicidal-behavior
  7. http://www.metanoia.org/suicide/whattodo.htm
  8. http://www.helpguide.org/articles/suicide-prevention/suicide-prevention-helping-someone-who-is-suicidal.htm
  9. http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2007/10/08/common-signs-of-someone-who-may-be-suicidal/
  10. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/suicide/in-depth/suicide/ART-20044707
  11. http://www.suicide.org/how-to-help-a-suicidal-person.html
  12. http://www.suicide.org/how-to-help-a-suicidal-person.html
  13. http://www.afsp.org/preventing-suicide/frequently-asked-questions
  14. https://www.utdallas.edu/counseling/suicide/
  15. http://www.afsp.org/preventing-suicide/frequently-asked-questions
  16. https://www.utdallas.edu/counseling/suicide/
  17. http://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/neurological_institute/center-for-behavorial-health/patient-education/hic-recognizing-suicidal-behavior
  18. http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/tc/suicidal-thoughts-or-threats-prevention
  19. http://psychcentral.com/helpme.htm
  20. http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/tc/suicidal-thoughts-or-threats-prevention
  21. http://www.suicide.org/how-to-help-a-suicidal-person.html
  22. http://www.suicide.org/how-to-help-a-suicidal-person.html
  23. http://www.webmd.com/depression/news/20050802/therapy-can-prevent-repeat-suicide-attempts
  24. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/national-strategy-suicide-prevention/factsheet.pdf
  25. https://www.utdallas.edu/counseling/suicide/

How to Make a Bleach T Shirt

Posted: 10 Sep 2019 01:00 AM PDT

Stenciling is a popular way to spruce up a plain T shirt, but it tends to work best on white shirts. If you have a colored T shirt, then you can still make it look interesting using similar techniques. Instead of using paint, however, you'll use bleach instead! Once you know the basics, you can create all sorts of designs, such as reverse tie dye, galaxy, or splatter!

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Preparing the Stencil

  1. Choose a blank T shirt in a bright or dark color. You can choose any color you want, but dark or bright colors, such as red, black, blue, or gray will work the best. You can try a light color as well, such as pink, but the bleach may not show very well. Make sure that the shirt is clean and ironed.[1]
    Make a Bleach T Shirt Step 1 Version 4.jpg
  2. Choose a design to use as a stencil. Simple designs, such as hearts, stars, and silhouettes work the best. You can also create a more intricate one, such as an owl or tree, but you will need to do more cutting. The image needs to be small enough to fit on your shirt.[2]

    Make a Bleach T Shirt Step 2 Version 4.jpg
    • You will be spraying the area around the stencil to create a reverse stencil effect. Something about the size of your hand would be ideal.
    • You can try using store-bought stencils, but make sure that they are reverse stencils, where it is just a solid shape, and not a cut-out.
  3. Trace your design onto the matte side of a sheet of freezer paper. Cut a sheet of freezer paper that's big enough for your design. Draw your design onto the matte (not shiny) side of the freezer paper with a pen. Alternatively, place your freezer paper over an image on the computer, and trace it with a pen; the paper is translucent enough for the image to glow through it.
    Make a Bleach T Shirt Step 3 Version 4.jpg
    • You can find freezer paper in a grocery store alongside the wax paper, parchment paper, aluminum foil, etc.
    • If you can't find freezer paper, use contact paper instead. Do not use wax paper or parchment paper; they are not the same thing.
  4. Cut your design out of the paper with a craft blade. Once the design is cut out, discard the rest of the paper. Tape the freezer paper to a cutting mat, then cut the design out. If you have a very intricate design, cut the smaller shapes out first, then do the larger ones. Discard the rest of the paper and keep the cut out design.[3]

  5. Cut out any inside shapes, if desired. You don't have to do this, but it will make your stencil more interesting. For example, if you cut an owl out of the freezer paper, you could cut some feather, beak, and eye shapes out of it. If you cut a heart, you could cut a lacy design into it.[4]
    Make a Bleach T Shirt Step 5 Version 4.jpg
  6. Iron the shiny side of your stencil to the front of a T shirt. Place the stencil on your shirt with the shiny side (not the matte, papery side) facing down. Press the stencil with an iron for a few seconds until it sticks to the shirt. Pull the iron away, add any inside shapes, such as pupils in an owl's eyes, and press again.[5]

    • Do not iron contact paper, or you will melt it. Instead, peel the backing off, then press the contact paper to the shirt.

[Edit]Bleaching the Shirt

  1. Tuck a sheet of cardboard inside the T shirt. The cardboard needs to be larger than your stencil, but also small enough to fit inside the shirt without stretching it. This will prevent the design from transferring to the back of your T shirt.[6]

  2. Prepare a solution of bleach and water. Fill a spray bottle halfway with bleach, then fill it the rest of the way with water. Close the spray bottle, then shake it to mix the solution.

    • If you want a more drastic effect, use 70% bleach and 30% water instead.
    • Work in a well-ventilated area, and protect your work surface against stains and spills.
  3. Spray the stencil with your solution. If your stencil is a solid shape, like a silhouette, focus on the edges of the stencil. If you cut additional shapes out of the stencil, like feathers and eyes on an owl, then spray the inside of the stencil first. You can extend the bleach spray as far from the stencil as you want.[7]

    • Hold the bottle closer to the shirt to make the bleach more saturated, and further away to make it fainter.
    • Bleach the areas closest to the outline of your stencil the most. This will create a nice outline in the end.
    • Be careful with contact paper. If you spray too much bleach, the solution will melt the glue holding the contact paper to the T shirt.
  4. Wait for the bleach to lighten the shirt. How long you wait depends on the color of the shirt and how light you want it to get. Some colors lighten much faster than others, so you could wait as little as 5 minutes to as long as 20 or 30 minutes. Keep in mind that some colors will never turn a true white. For example, black and gray tend to turn brown or orange.[8]

    • You don't have to wait for the bleach to turn white. Once you are happy with the effect, you are ready for the next step.

[Edit]Rinsing and Drying the Shirt

  1. Peel the stencil off of the shirt. Put your gloves back on, then peel the stencil off. If you are careful not to rip the stencil, then you may be able to reuse it 1 or 2 more times. Keep in mind that each time you iron the stencil, the glue in the back will weaken.

    • Save the stencil if you wish to reuse it. Discard it if you don't want to reuse it.
    • You won't be able to reuse contact paper stencils; there will be too much fuzzy stuff on the back for it to stick again.
  2. Take the cardboard out, then rinse the shirt in plain water. Take the cardboard out first. Next, fill a tub or sink with cool tap water. Dip the shirt into the water and swirl it around. This will neutralize the bleach.[9]

  3. Wash the shirt to remove any traces of bleach. You can do this in the sink with detergent meant for hand washing garments, or you can do this in the washer. If you are using a washer, do not put any other garments into it, or you will risk staining them.[10]
    Make a Bleach T Shirt Step 13 Version 2.jpg
    • Do not wash the shirt with other white garments from this step. Many colored T shirts contain dyes that may come off in the wash and stain white garments.
  4. Allow the shirt to dry. You can dry the shirt in a dryer or you can hang it up to dry. Once the shirt is dry, you can wear it as you like.
    Make a Bleach T Shirt Step 14 Version 2.jpg

[Edit]Creating Other Bleached Designs

  1. Do a reverse tie dye effect with a colored T shirt and bleach. Choose a blank T shirt in a bright color, and tie it with rubber bands. Soak the shirt in a solution of bleach and water for 5 to 10 minutes, then lift it out. Rinse the shirt in fresh water, then remove the rubber bands. Wash the shirt, then hang it up to dry.
    Make a Bleach T Shirt Step 15 Version 2.jpg
    • Use a ratio of 1 part bleach and 1 part water.
  2. Flick bleach on a shirt for a splatter effect. Spread a blank, brightly-colored T shirt on a flat surface. Prepare a solution of 1 part bleach and 1 part water. Flick the solution onto the shirt using a stiff bristle brush until you get the look you want. Wait 5 to 10 minutes, then rinse the shirt with plain water. Wash the shirt, then let it dry.
    Make a Bleach T Shirt Step 16 Version 2.jpg
    • Tuck a piece of cardboard into the shirt if you don't want the design to transfer to the back. Remove the cardboard before rinsing the shirt.
  3. Create a galaxy effect by spraying a T shirt with diluted bleach. Spread a blank, brightly-colored T shirt on a flat surface. Fill a spray bottle with 1 part bleach and 1 part water, then mist the T shirt in it until you get your desired effect. Wait 5 to 10 minutes, then rinse the shirt in fresh water and hang it up to dry.[11]
    Make a Bleach T Shirt Step 17 Version 2.jpg
    • Tuck a sheet of cardboard into the shirt first if you don't want the design to transfer to the back. Remove the cardboard before you rinse, wash, and dry the shirt.
    • Create "stars" by flicking bleach onto the shirt with a stiff bristle paintbrush.
    • The closer you hold the spray bottle to the shirt, the more saturated the bleach effect will be. The further you hold the bottle, the lighter the bleach effect will be.
  4. Draw designs onto a shirt with a bleach pen. Choose a plain T shirt in a bright color. Tuck a piece of cardboard into the shirt, then write or draw on the shirt using a bleach pen. Wait 5 to 10 minutes, then remove the cardboard. Rinse the shirt in plain water, then wash and dry it.
    Make a Bleach T Shirt Step 18 Version 2.jpg
    • You can find bleach pens in the laundry or cleaning department of a grocery store. They are typically used to clean between tiles.
  5. Use painter's tape and bleach to create a striped design. Tuck a sheet of cardboard into a blank, brightly-colored T shirt. Place strips of painter's tape across the front and back of the T shirt to create stripes. Spray the T shirt with a solution of bleach and water. Wait 5 to 10 minutes, then remove the tape and cardboard. Rinse the shirt in plain water, then wash and dry it.[12]
    Make a Bleach T Shirt Step 19 Version 2.jpg
    • Use a solution of 1 part bleach and 1 part water. Make sure that you coat both sides of the shirt evenly, or the stripes won't come out right.
    • Place 2 to 3 strips of painter's tape together to create thicker stripes.


[Edit]Video

[Edit]Tips

  • Practice on old shirts you don't care about before starting on your final project.
  • Use a funnel to help pour the bleach and water into the spray bottle.
  • Wear old clothes that you don't mind ruining, otherwise you risk bleaching them too.
  • Do not get bleach on your skin. Wear plastic gloves, if you have to.
  • You can use regular stencils too--just tack them down with repositionable spray adhesive.

[Edit]Things You'll Need

  • Plain, colored T shirt
  • Bleach
  • Water
  • Spray bottle
  • Freezer paper (not wax paper or parchment paper)
  • Craft blade
  • Cutting mat
  • Iron
  • Cardboard

[Edit]Creating Other Bleached Designs

  • Plain, colored T shirt
  • Bleach
  • Water
  • Spray bottle
  • Cardboard
  • Painter's tape (optional)
  • Bleach pen (optional)
  • Bristle paintbrush (optional)
  • Rubber bands (optional)

[Edit]Related wikiHows


[Edit]References

How to Make a Piping Bag

Posted: 09 Sep 2019 05:00 PM PDT

A piping bag, also known as a pastry bag, is a cone-shaped bag that you fill with icing, frosting, or sauce. You apply pressure to the bag to dispense frosting, icing, or sauce in a specific pattern to make your dish beautiful and tasty. You can make a piping bag by filling a resealable plastic bag and cutting the corner off. If you don't have a plastic bag, you can cut a triangle out of parchment paper and fold it into a cone. If you want to store any left-overs, use a plastic bag since it can easily be packed away. If you have a lot of different icings that you need to use, opt for parchment paper since it's cheap and disposable.

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Using a Resealable Plastic Bag

  1. Get a resealable plastic bag and a pair of scissors. Resealable plastic bags make excellent piping bags because the frosting or sauce won't come out from anywhere but the point that you want it to. Select a plastic bag based on the amount of frosting or sauce that you need to apply to the top of your dish.[1]

    Make a Piping Bag Step 1 Version 3.jpg
    • Most packages list the interior volume of the plastic bag. This can make it easy to determine whether a bag is big enough for the recipe.
    • A thicker resealable bag, like a freezer bag, is a good choice if you have a thicker frosting that will require a lot pressure to be applied to the bag.
    • You can use a non-sealable plastic bag if that's all you have available, but you'll need to twist it at the top once you fill it to close it. These bags also tend to explode when you squeeze them, so they're not great for thicker frostings.
  2. Open your plastic bag and add your icing or sauce with a spoon. Set your bag and other materials out on a cutting board or flat work surface. Open the resealable plastic bag and start scooping your sauce or frosting into the bag.[2]

    • One of the advantages of using a plastic bag is that the sauce or icing won't leak out of the bottom while you're adding it.
    • You can make a nozzle for your bag by cutting out a flexible strip of matboard or aluminum and wrapping it into a cone before cutting the points out with scissors. Insert the nozzle from the inside before filling your bag if you want one. The pattern that comes out may not be perfect though.[3]
  3. Seal the bag at the top to close it. Once you've added your frosting or sauce, seal your bag by running your fingers on the opposite sides of the seal and pressing it together. If you have a plastic bag with a zipper, all you need to do is slide it to the other end of the bag. Push the frosting, icing, or sauce down towards the corner that you're going to cut.[4]

    • You can push the air out before sealing it if you want. It'll make it easier to dispense the icing or sauce but it will also come out quicker.
  4. Use scissors to snip a corner of the bag off. Open your scissors and place the blades around the corner of the bag. Line your scissors up so that there is of plastic sticking out past the line that you're going to cut. Close the scissor blades to snip a section of the bag off and make the spout for your piping bag.[5]

    • The size of the cut that you make will determine the amount of sauce or frosting that dispenses as you squeeze your bag. The bigger you make the hole when you cut the bag, the more icing or sauce that will come out.
    • Lift your bag up with the opening pointing upwards so that your sauce or frosting doesn't spill out.
  5. Hold the bag over your dish and squeeze the bag to use it. Put your nondominant hand around the top of the bag to control the pressure in the bag and move it. Place your dominant hand lightly around the bottom of the bag to control where the icing or sauce comes out. Keep the opening of your piping bag from the surface of the dish to apply your sauce or frosting.[6]

    • If you want to stop dispersing the sauce or frosting, all you need to do is stop squeezing the bag and tilt the opening of the bag upwards.

[Edit]Folding Parchment Paper to Make a Cone

  1. Cut a large triangle out of a sheet of parchment paper. Pull out a sheet of parchment paper and cut an isosceles triangle out. The size of your sheet will determine the size of your bag. A triangle with a base of is a good general size for applying sauce or frosting.[7]

    • You can buy parchment paper from a pharmacy, grocery store, general goods store, or some corner stores.
    • The advantage of using parchment paper is that it's extremely cheap and easy to cut. It also comes in rolls, so you can pull out any length to adjust the size of the bag.
  2. Fold 1 corner over the middle of the opposite side. Hold 1 side in front of you with your nondominant hand. Grab the opposite point in your dominant hand and fold your dominant hand over the side that you're holding. Angle it slightly to any side to make one of the openings smaller than the other. Pinch the junction where your side and point meet your nondominant hand.[8]

  3. Continue wrapping the corner around the side until the sheet forms a cone. Keep the side and point pinched lightly together and continue pulling the point around the parchment paper at an angle. Continue pulling it until the narrow opening at the bottom is wide.[9]

    • The size of the opening will determine how much sauce or frosting comes out of the bag when you're using it.
  4. Staple the junction where the corner folds over your sheet if you want. You can use the bag without stapling it by simply holding the junction with your nondominant hand as you're using it. If you want to ensure that the paper stays folded though, use a stapler to put a few staples over the area where it overlaps so that it doesn't unfold.[10]

    Make a Piping Bag Step 9 Version 4.jpg
    • You can make multiple piping bags ahead of time if you need to use multiple bags while you're baking or cooking.
  5. Fill the bag with icing, sauce, or frosting by scooping it in with a spoon. Hold the bag on its side and start scooping sauce or icing into the middle of the bag. If the material that you're adding is particularly thin, pinch the opening at the bottom of your cone to keep it closed as you add your icing or sauce.[11]

    • You can't really add a nozzle to the tip of your paper pastry bag. It's kind of unwieldy as it is, and the seal won't be airtight around the nozzle.
  6. Fold the top of your bag over to close it. Once you've added a decent amount of icing or sauce, fold the opening at the top over itself to close it. Fold it multiple times to ensure that nothing spills out. Lift the bag and squeeze it to apply your icing or sauce.[12]

    • Discard your bag after you've used it. You can't really store it for a long period of time without anything leaking out.

[Edit]Video

[Edit]Things You'll Need

[Edit]Using a Resealable Plastic Bag

  • Resealable plastic bag
  • Spoon
  • Scissors

[Edit]Folding Parchment Paper to Make a Cone

  • Parchment paper
  • Scissors
  • Stapler (optional)
  • Staples (optional)
  • Spoon

[Edit]Related wikiHows

[Edit]References

[Edit]Quick Summary