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Saturday, March 7, 2020

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How to Teach Cultural Empathy

Posted: 07 Mar 2020 04:00 PM PST

Cultural empathy is an appreciation and tolerance of cultures that are different from one's own. Like many beliefs and attitudes, cultural empathy begins to develop at a young age and is reinforced or challenged over time by watching others and through life experiences. Whether you're a parent, teacher, mentor, or friend, you can help others understand and value different cultures by explaining what cultural empathy is and demonstrating what it means. You can then help reinforce their attitudes about different cultures by creating opportunities for them to put cultural empathy into practice.

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Explaining Cultural Empathy

  1. Describe and celebrate some of the ways that people are different. To help someone learn to be empathic and tolerant of other cultures, it can be helpful for you to first take some time to identify and explain some of the cultural differences that make people and societies unique. If the person you're teaching hasn't had much exposure to other cultures, they may be inclined to reject or judge any differences they encounter. By explaining how cultural diversity makes the world more interesting, they'll start to appreciate different cultures and understand how uniquely each is in its own right.[1]
    Teach Cultural Empathy Step 01.jpg
    • For example, if you're an American teaching your middle schooler, try explaining 1 aspect of a different culture to them per week. Begin by telling them about the cultural significance of grass basket weaving in Western Africa, then focus on teaching them a few basic phrases in French the following week.
    • By describing and celebrating cultural differences, they'll gradually learn to appreciate diversity and likely become more accepting of those who are different from them.
  2. Identify some common traits that all humans share. While it's important to teach cultural diversity, pointing out some common traits across cultures can also help your student or child develop cultural empathy. Showing them what they have in common with someone from a different culture can make others seem more familiar, which will likely make your student or child feel more comfortable with any cultural differences.[2]
    Teach Cultural Empathy Step 02.jpg
    • By identifying what they have in common with someone from a different culture, you'll be able to show them that humans are not always that different, despite living in different places and having different customs.
    • To help you demonstrate some similarities, try to show them an example of a person from a different culture participating in an activity that they enjoy. For example, if your high school student or child loves fashion, try showing them a video about the unique and ornate jewelry-making process in Egypt and ask them, "Do you see any similarities between their interests and your own?"
    • If you're teaching cultural empathy to an entire class of elementary school students, try asking each student, "What is most important to you?". That way, the students will be able to see that many of their values are the same despite any cultural differences between them.
  3. Give examples that show why intolerance is harmful and hurtful. In order to help your child or student learn to be empathic and tolerant, it can be beneficial to show how intolerance can impact those who are targeted. Pointing out a few common unfair stereotypes and explaining how they have a negative impact on those being judged may encourage them to reflect on their own prejudices and reassess how they think and act towards people who are different from them in the future.[3]
    Teach Cultural Empathy Step 03.jpg
    • For example, if you're teaching a group of middle or high school students, try to first explain a bit about the history of racism in America. Then, show a few excerpts from a documentary on racism in which people from various minorities describe the harmful impact of racism in their own lives.
    • For older children and young adults, it can also be helpful to explain how intolerance can be limiting in their own lives. For example, try to explain that if they aren't empathetic and open to working and having relationships with people that are different than them, their options in life will be much more limited.[4]
  4. Teach your student or child to embrace their own culture. To help someone become more empathic towards other cultures, it may be helpful to take some time to help them understand their own unique culture and heritage. In many cases, people will be more willing to accept and appreciate unique aspects of other cultures if they understand that their own culture is unique and different in its own right.[5]
    Teach Cultural Empathy Step 04.jpg
    • This is particularly important for minority students who may face intolerance and discrimination elsewhere.
    • By encouraging them to accept their differences, they'll have the self-confidence to feel more comfortable and appreciative of cultures they may not fully understand.
    • For example, if you're of Scottish descent, try teaching your young child about your clan's traditional clothing and customs. Then, try saying to them, "Just as we are proud of these traditions, other people from various parts of the world are proud of their own traditions. So, we should treat everyone with respect, regardless of what their specific customs are."

[Edit]Demonstrating Cultural Empathy

  1. Be a role model by being open and respectful of other cultures. As a parent or teacher, your students or children will generally look to you to see how to act when encountering people, places, or cultural customs that are different. If you lead by example and are respectful, open, and welcoming to those that are different from you, your students and children will learn to do the same.[6]
    Teach Cultural Empathy Step 05.jpg
    • For example, if you make negative comments about someone's appearance or religion, your students or children will pick up on this over time and likely start to emulate this behavior. Therefore, it's important that you practice cultural empathy yourself so they'll learn to be tolerant and accepting as well.[7]
    • Whether you're with your child, student, or a friend you're trying to teach to be more tolerant, when you encounter someone who is culturally different from you, try asking them, "Will you tell us a bit about your culture?" That way, you'll help them get the opportunity to learn about another culture while showing them that you're open and accepting of others.
  2. Utilize diverse learning materials to create a tolerant environment. To help your student or child become more familiar with different cultures, try incorporating d├ęcor and learning materials from a variety of different cultures into their learning space. Whether you're teaching in a classroom or trying to teach your child cultural empathy at home, creating a diverse educational environment will help encourage cultural tolerance and acceptance.[8]
    Teach Cultural Empathy Step 06.jpg
    • For example, try putting up signs and labels in different languages, hanging images of people from all over the world, stocking books about diverse cultures, and including games from places around the world.
  3. Provide examples of multicultural role models. When you're teaching your student or child about significant people and achievements in various genres, try to include people from a variety of different cultural backgrounds. This will show them that people of all genders, cultures, ethnicities, and appearances contribute positively to the world and excel at what they're passionate about.[9]
    Teach Cultural Empathy Step 07.jpg
    • For example, if the person you're teaching loves football, try telling them about Jim Thorpe, a Native American professional football player and Olympian who persevered through racism and poverty to become one of the most famous American athletes of all time.
  4. Use real life moments to demonstrate the need for cultural empathy. While demonstrating cultural empathy in designated learning environments is helpful, people tend to learn more about cultural empathy from real life experiences. By pointing out situations when others are or are not practicing empathy towards someone different than them, you'll be able to show them what cultural empathy looks like in real life.[10]
    Teach Cultural Empathy Step 08.jpg
    • For example, if you witness a person making a racially or ethnically insensitive comment, take the time to explain what it means and why it was so hurtful.
    • In addition, regardless of their age, if someone you're with makes a judgmental comment about someone who is different from them, ask them, "How would you feel if you were in that person's shoes?" Rather than chastising them for their comment, try to use this as a real life teachable moment and encourage them to understand how and why their comment was hurtful.
  5. Incorporate different cultural customs into activities they enjoy. Perhaps one of the easiest ways to teach a child about different people and cultures is to incorporate different cultural elements into the activities they enjoy. For example, if your child loves dolls, try getting them a few dolls that represent cultures different than their own. By playing with dolls from a number of different cultures, they'll learn to be comfortable and accepting of different appearances, clothing, and customs.[11]
    Teach Cultural Empathy Step 09.jpg
    • In addition, incorporating other culture's customs into the activities they enjoy will subtly send the message that learning about and working with other cultures makes the world a more interesting, fruitful place.

[Edit]Creating Opportunities to Practice Empathy

  1. Encourage them interact with people who are different from them. One of the best ways for people of all ages to become more tolerant and appreciative of other cultures is for them to build relationships with people who are different from them. Whenever an opportunity arises, urge them to go and talk to new people, or help them by introducing yourself as well.[12]
    Teach Cultural Empathy Step 10.jpg
    • For example, if you're a teacher, try encouraging your students to get to know different people at their school by switching out the lunchroom seat assignments every week.
    • If you're a parent, try organizing play dates with a variety of different people. While it may be tempting to stick to the people you already know, getting to know new people can help both you and your child become more culturally empathic.
  2. Visit local institutions that teach about other cultures. In most places, there are a number of museums and cultural centers that provide a variety of activities and services aimed at teaching visitors about their culture. Taking advantage of these opportunities is a great way to help teach someone cultural empathy and learn more about the various cultures that make up your community as well.[13]
    Teach Cultural Empathy Step 11.jpg
    • Because museums and cultural centers are generally sites that are designated for learning, child or students of any age may feel more comfortable asking questions in this setting, which can help them learn more and become more accepting.
  3. Travel to different places to expose them to different cultures. While traveling can be expensive and difficult to arrange, it can be one of the best ways to help someone learn to accept and appreciate cultures that are different from their own. Traveling to a new place allows them to immerse themselves in different ways of life and learn first-hand what their cultural customs and values are.[14]
    Teach Cultural Empathy Step 12.jpg
    • Traveling can also provide more opportunities to interact with people from different cultures.

[Edit]References

 

How to Draw a Braid

Posted: 07 Mar 2020 08:00 AM PST

Braids are a challenge that have frustrated many artists. The good news is that it often becomes easier with practice.

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Sketching a Braid

  1. Sketch a vague outline of where you want the braid to go. Braided hair will be wider on top and narrower towards the bottom. Sketching some quick guidelines will help you keep your place.
    Draw a Braid MLR1 1.png
    • Even if the person has straight hair, the braid doesn't need to fall straight down. Curved lines make it more interesting and lifelike.
  2. Sketch or imagine the parts of a braid. A braid consists of interlocking curves, shaped similar to a parenthesis. When placed together, they make a sort of "Y" shape.
    Draw a Braid MLR1 2.png
    • Figuring this out can be tricky for many beginning (or even intermediate!) artists. It's okay if you need to erase it and try again. It will get easier the more you practice.
  3. Start drawing the actual outline of the braid. If you're drawing digitally, create a new layer. Following your guidelines, draw each interlocking piece. Remember, there may be little gaps in between as the pieces of hair twist around each other.
    Draw a Braid MLR1 3.png
  4. Draw a ring to tie off the braid. You'll have to interrupt one of the hair sections; this is fine. Many hair ties have to be twisted once or twice to wrap around someone's hair, so try drawing several pieces.
    Draw a Braid MLR1 4.png
  5. Draw the "tail" below the tie. This is where the hair tapers to an end. It may "fluff out" a little beyond the confines of the hair tie, but then it will usually narrow down to a near point.
    Draw a Braid MLR1 5.png
    • How much hair is below the tie depends on you! There will need to be some (or the tie would fall off), but some people leave only a little at the end while others prefer to end the braid up higher.
  6. Add details. The braid will look prettier if you add some extra strands. Some of these strands will be inside the braid, showing how the hair flows. You can also draw strands that have come loose from the main braid.
    Draw a Braid MLR1 6.png
    • The hair should go in similar directions to the surrounding hair, but it doesn't have to be exactly the same. A little variation makes it interesting.
    • How much hair falls out of the braid, and how far it goes from the rest, will depend on the looseness of the braid. Braids get looser over time, so if the person has been wearing the braid for a while, it will become messier.

[Edit]Coloring Digitally

  1. Create a new layer for coloring. Put it below your line layer. Lay in a flat color or a gentle gradient to begin.
    Draw a Braid MLR1 color 1.png
    • Some people like to create a layer mask. If you use a mask, you can shade freely without worrying about whether you're coloring outside the lines.
  2. Add highlights and shadows. Each section of hair within the braid will be darker near the ends (where it folds under other sections) and lighter in the middle.
    Draw a Braid MLR1 color 2.png
    • Think about where your light source is coming from. In this picture, the main light source is gentle and comes from the upper left.
    • You can color the hair ring a different color, or leave it the same tone as the hair. Some people prefer to use hair rings that are a close match to their hair color, so that it blends in visually a bit more.
    • A translucent brush can be useful if you want to avoid harsh lines.
  3. Consider colored highlights and shadows to make your picture a little more vibrant. Adjusting hue for highlights and shadows can make your art look more interesting.
    Draw a Braid MLR1 color 3.png
    • This picture uses a gold color on Add (Glow) mode and a purple color on Linear Burn mode. A low opacity keeps the effect from being overpowering.

[Edit]Video

[Edit]Tips

  • Don't get discouraged if your first tries don't look very good. This is normal. Take a break and try again later. You'll figure it out as you keep experimenting and learning.

[Edit]Related wikiHows

How to Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer

Posted: 07 Mar 2020 12:00 AM PST

Using soap and water is the best and most traditional way to get your hands clean, but there are times when you simply can't get to a sink to wash them. Gel alcohol hand sanitizer is an excellent and portable solution to this dilemma – and it's incredibly easy to make at home! Not only is making gel alcohol hand sanitizer at home an excellent project for both children and adults, but you'll also save money and end up with a great product that keeps you and your family safe from germs. Small bottles make great gifts!

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Making Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer without Fragrance

  1. Obtain your ingredients. The components needed to make gel alcohol hand sanitizer are common household products, so it's quite possible that you already have them. If you don't, you can obtain them easily at any drug or grocery store. You will need rubbing (isopropyl) alcohol that is at minimum 91% pure and plain aloe vera gel. That's it!
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • To be comparable to store-bought products like Purell or Germ-X in terms of effectiveness, the final product needs to be at least 65% alcohol.[1] Using 91% isopropyl alcohol will place your final product within that range.
    • If you can find 99% isopropyl alcohol, choose that. It's not required, but it will increase the germ-killing effectiveness of your final product.
    • Aloe vera gel also comes in a variety of purity options. You'll want the purest that you can find – simply check out the label to get the purity information.[2] This doesn't alter the effectiveness of the product, but using the purest you can find will ensure that your final mixture contains the least amount of additives and additional chemicals.
  2. Gather your tools. The tools needed are also very common household items, which makes this process even easier! You'll need a clean bowl, a spatula (or spoon), a funnel and a recycled liquid soap or hand sanitizer bottle. If you don't have an empty bottle on hand to upcycle, you can use any kind of container you want, as long as it has a lid.
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 2 Version 2.jpg
  3. Combine the ingredients. Measure out 2/3 cup of isopropyl alcohol and 1/3 cup of plain aloe vera gel and dump both of them together in to the bowl. Use your spatula (or spoon) to stir vigorously until the ingredients are fully mixed together.
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • If you'd prefer not to mix by hand in a bowl, you can use your food processor instead.
  4. Bottle your product. Use the funnel to pour the mixture directly from the bowl into the bottle you've chosen to use. Replace the pump, lid or cap on your bottle. Now you have your finished product and it's ready to use immediately!
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    • The mixture will keep for 6 months or more. Store it away from direct sunlight to get the longest shelf life possible.[3]
    • Put the mixture in smaller bottles that can easily fit into a purse, backpack or briefcase for use on the go. If you purchase any commercial sanitizers, save the bottles so that you can upcycle them later, since those are perfect for this.
    • You can usually purchase new empty bottles of this size at the grocery store. Check the aisle with travel size personal care items.
  5. Use the sanitizer correctly. There is actually a proper way to use sanitizer to get maximum effectiveness from the product. Before you start, make sure your hands are clean of visible dirt and grime. Sanitizer isn't meant for situations when you find your hands dirty with actual dirt.
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 5.jpg
    • Using about a palm-sized amount of the sanitizer, rub your hands briskly together for 20 to 30 seconds, taking care to get underneath your fingernails, between your fingers, the back of your hands and your wrists.
    • Allow the sanitizer to dry completely, without wiping your hands off or rinsing them with water.
    • Once the sanitizer dries completely, the process is complete.[4]

[Edit]Adding Essential Oils

  1. Determine your goal(s) for adding essential oils. Essential oils can be added to your sanitizer for fragrance alone, but the benefits of essential oils extend well beyond simply providing a pleasant scent.[5] The oils have been used for thousands of years by cultures all over the world to provide healing effects for mental, physical, and emotional ailments.[6]
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 6.jpg
    • Inhalation of the different scents offers a wide range of psychological and physical benefits known as aromatherapy.[7]
    • Essential oils can also be used medicinally by way of both scent and physical application to provide additional health, hygiene and beauty advantages.
    • The use of essential oils in your hand sanitizer will not only deliver a terrific smell, but they can also address specific physical and mental health issues.
  2. Choose essential oils for aromatherapy. Inhaling the scent of a particular essential oil can stimulate your brain to trigger a variety of mental and emotional reactions. By adding them to your hand sanitizer, you can have a therapeutic experience while also killing pesky germs. You can choose one oil or combine oils to create multi-layered effects. The world of aromatherapy is far too vast for a detailed examination here, but there are some specific essential oils that are most commonly employed for use in hand sanitizers.
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 7.jpg
    • Cinnamon essential oil has fragrance properties that can reduce drowsiness and enhance concentration.
    • Lavender essential oil is a rejuvenating scent that can induce relaxation and feelings of calmness.
    • Rosemary essential oil has properties known to boost information retention, alertness, and memory.
    • Lemon essential oil has an uplifting scent that can help ease depression and sadness while also boosting energy.
    • Peppermint essential oil is an invigorating scent that can soothe frazzled nerves and improve mental clarity.[8]
  3. Choose essential oils for medicinal purposes. Essential oils have naturally occurring chemicals in them that can provide medicinal and curative benefits when inhaled into the lungs or applied to the skin.[9] There are several essential oils that are known to have powerful antibacterial, antifungal and/or antiviral properties. These qualities make the oils ideal for use in hand sanitizer because they will boost the effectiveness of the product with natural ingredients.
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 8.jpg
    • Cinnamon essential oil is known to be a potent antiseptic and its fragrance can also decrease headache pain.
    • Lavender essential oil can relieve pain associated with headaches and migraines pains, and can be applied topically to relieve minor skin irritations.
    • Tea Tree essential oil is known to have powerful antiseptic and antibacterial properties when applied topically.[10]
    • Eucalyptus essential oil has antibacterial properties and can help relieve achy muscles. Inhaling it can clear sinuses and boost the immune system.[11]
  4. Use caution. Essential oils are highly concentrated and can have negative side effects if used improperly. Pregnant women and those with immune deficiencies shouldn't use them without consulting a doctor first. If you're new to the world of essential oils, do a skin patch test before adding it to your hand sanitizer and using it topically.
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 9.jpg
    • Never apply an essential oil directly to the skin without diluting it first. Because they are so concentrated, some of them can be skin irritants.[12]
    • When working with essential oils, use the highest grade products that you can find. Check the label for terms like "pure grade", "aromatherapy grade", "certified organic" and "therapeutic grade" when purchasing.
  5. Add your chosen oils to your sanitizer. Measure out 2/3 cup of isopropyl alcohol and 1/3 cup of plain aloe vera gel and dump both of them together in to the bowl.[13] Add ten drops of your chosen essential oil(s). Do not exceed 10 drops! Use your spatula (or spoon) to stir vigorously until all of the ingredients are fully mixed together.
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 10.jpg

[Edit]Making Gel Hand Sanitizer with Grain Alcohol

  1. Obtain your ingredients. Most of the components needed to make the hand sanitizer are common household products, so it's quite possible that you already have most of them. Start with a bottle of 190-proof grain alcohol, which is 95% alcohol. Since your hand sanitizer needs to be at least 65% alcohol to be effective, using a high-proof liquor will ensure you get the strength you need. In addition, you'll need plain aloe vera gel, and any essential oils you'd like to use.[14]
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 11.jpg
    • The essential oils you choose are completely up to you. Lavender, lemon, peppermint, geranium, cinnamon, tea tree and rosemary are common choices.[15] You can use more than one if you like, but the total amount of essential oil you use should not exceed 10 drops.
    • Aloe vera gel also comes in a variety of purity options. You'll want the purest that you can find – simply check out the label to get the purity information.[16]
  2. Gather your tools. You'll need a clean bowl, a spatula (or spoon), a funnel and a recycled liquid soap or hand sanitizer bottle.[17] If you don't have an empty bottle on hand to upcycle, you can use any kind of container you want, as long as it has a lid.
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 12.jpg
  3. Combine the ingredients. Measure out of grain alcohol and of plain aloe vera gel and dump both of them together in the bowl.[18] Add ten drops of your chosen essential oil(s). Use your spatula (or spoon) to stir vigorously until the ingredients are fully mixed together.
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 13.jpg
    • You can adjust the amount of the products that you're using, if you'd like, but keep the grain alcohol at a 2-to-1 ratio with the gel to ensure it's strong enough.
    • If you'd prefer not to mix by hand in a bowl, you can use your food processor instead.
  4. Bottle your product. Use the funnel to pour the mixture directly from the bowl into the bottle you've chosen to use. Replace the pump, lid or cap on your bottle. Now you have your finished product and its ready-to-use immediately!
    Make Gel Alcohol Hand Sanitizer Step 14.jpg
    • Use the mixture within one month. Store it out of direct sunlight.[19]

[Edit]Warnings

  • Gel alcohol hand purifier is a portable convenience and should not replace washing with soap and water once these are available.
  • Do not use the sanitizer excessively throughout the day. It can be drying to the skin and unless you're travelling and unable to get to a sink to wash your hands with soap, you shouldn't need to use it that much.
  • Keep any hand sanitizer – whether homemade or store bought – out of the reach of children.

[Edit]Related wikiHows

[Edit]References

[Edit]Quick Summary

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