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Thursday, March 5, 2020

How to of the Day

How to of the Day


How to Eat Salmon

Posted: 05 Mar 2020 04:00 PM PST

If you're trying to include more fish in your diet, salmon is a great option. It's high in omega-3 fatty acids, protein, and flavor. Although delicate salmon doesn't require seasoning, you could marinate it before broiling, grilling, poaching, searing, or roasting it. Remember that salmon can be just as flavorful when you eat it raw or smoked!

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Choosing a Cooking Method

  1. Cook salmon under a broiler for fast caramelized flavor. Marinate a salmon fillet in your favorite flavorful ingredients while you preheat a broiler to high. Lay the fish on a baking sheet and place it about below the broiler. Cook the fish for about 6 minutes and then spoon some of the marinade over the top. Broil the fish for another 2 minutes so the salmon chars a little.[1]

    • If you'd like your fish cooked more, continue to broil it for 1-minute increments until it's as cooked as you like.
  2. Toss salmon on the grill to give it a smoky flavor. Heat a charcoal grill to high and oil the grate so the fish doesn't stick to it. Lay the fish on the grate flesh-side down and cover the grill. Cook the salmon for 1 to 3 minutes before you flip it over. Then, cover and cook the salmon for another 2 to 5 minutes.[2]

    • Although the USDA recommends cooking salmon until it reaches , you might prefer to cook it less so it stays tender.
    • If you want to use a gas grill, add wood chips to a smoker basket in order to lightly smoke the fish.
  3. Simmer salmon in white wine for a delicate flavor. To poach salmon fillets, pour about of white wine into a skillet and heat it over medium. Add 1 sliced onion to the simmering wine and lay the salmon fillets on top. Then, put the lid on the skillet and cook the salmon for 5 to 10 minutes or until they flake in the center when you drag a fork across.

    • To add extra flavor, lay fresh herbs, such as parsley or dill, in the skillet before you add the salmon.
  4. Pan-sear salmon steaks to get crispy skin. To cook 1 or 2 salmon steaks quickly, heat of vegetable oil in a skillet over medium-high heat. Once the oil is hot, lay the steaks in the pan so the skin faces down. Cook the salmon for 5 to 7 minutes without turning it so the skin becomes crispy and doesn't stick. Then, flip the fish over and cook it for 15 seconds so it sears on the top.[3]

    • Serve the crispy salmon steaks immediately so the skin doesn't begin to soften.
  5. Slow-roast salmon for tender, flaky texture. If you're worried you'll overcook the salmon on the grill or stove, place a salmon fillet into a baking dish and preheat the oven to . Season the salmon however you like and drizzle a little extra-virgin olive oil over the fish. Bake the fish for about 30 minutes or until it flakes a little in the center.[4]

    • If you're serving salmon to a group, consider roasting a whole salmon instead of individual fillets.

[Edit]Eating Raw Salmon

  1. Order sushi or sashimi to enjoy the pure taste of the fish. If you love the taste of the fish, order thinly sliced salmon, called sashimi, so you can enjoy the fish's unique flavor. You may want to order sushi rolls if you like salmon with flavored rice and seaweed. Try eating the salmon sushi with wasabi or soy sauce to add a salty, spicy flavor.[5]

    • If you'd like to make salmon sushi or sashimi at home, use sushi-grade salmon, which has been super frozen to kill parasites.
  2. Try salmon carpaccio for a light appetizer. Instead of sticking with the standard shrimp cocktail, thinly slice raw salmon and spread it on a flat serving plate. Cover the salmon with a lemon-dill vinaigrette and marinate it for at least 2 hours. Then, garnish the salmon carpaccio with a few capers just before serving.[6] of extra-virgin olive oil}}

    • Avoid storing leftover salmon carpaccio because the lime juice will break down the texture of the fish over time.
  3. Make ceviche for salmon with bright citrus flavor. Toss of salmon chunks with of lime juice and let it marinate at room temperature for 30 minutes. Just before you're ready to serve the ceviche with tostadas or chips, drain the lime juice and stir in your choice of:[7]

  4. Try salmon poke if you enjoy Hawaiian cuisine. Poke is similar to ceviche, but the fish is usually marinated in Asian-inspired ingredients. To enjoy salmon poke at home, mix of salmon chunks with of soy sauce, of rice wine vinegar, of sriracha sauce, and of sesame oil. Marinate the salmon for 15 to 30 minutes and serve the poke salmon with:[8]

[Edit]Trying Pre-Cooked Smoked Salmon

  1. Blend smoked salmon with cream cheese to make a savory dip. Seafood dip is a popular appetizer since it's creamy and flavorful. Combine smoked salmon with cream cheese, horseradish, lemon juice, and chives. If you want a lighter dip, substitute equal parts of crème fraîche and plain Greek yogurt for the cream cheese. Then, serve the salmon dip with:[9]

    • Crostini
    • Breadsticks
    • Carrot sticks
    • Sliced cucumbers
  2. Toss smoked salmon into pasta or casseroles. The smoked flavor of the fish helps cut through creamy or rich food, such as risotto, scalloped potatoes, or carbonara. If you don't want to stir it into the dish, flake a few pieces of the salmon and scatter it over the meal before you serve it.[10]

    • Keep in mind that if you refrigerate leftovers, they'll become even smokier as they're stored.
  3. Add smoked salmon to chowder or seafood stew. Round out the flavor of your favorite chowder by stirring flaked or chunked smoked salmon into it. Although the salmon holds up to the thick texture of chowder or stew, it also works well in lighter soups. Try adding smoked salmon to delicate leek and potato soup, for instance.[11]

  4. Lay smoked salmon on toast or a bagel. Toast a bagel or piece of rye bread and spread it with cream cheese. Then, lay a few thin slices of smoked salmon on top along with fresh herbs, such as parsley or dill. You can also top the bagel or toast with shaved radishes to give the salmon a little heat.[12]

    • If you don't want a bagel or open-faced sandwich, layer the smoked salmon between 2 slices of bread. Consider adding sliced cucumbers and dill for extra crunch.

[Edit]Tips

  • You can also buy already cooked canned salmon. Remove the bones and skin if you like and use the canned salmon to make patties or salmon burgers.
  • It's easy to create a healthy salmon dinner. Just pair your choice of salmon with a garden salad, roasted vegetables, or whole grains.

[Edit]References

How to Deal With Exam Stress

Posted: 05 Mar 2020 08:00 AM PST

Exams are a crucial part of education and the source of stress for many students. In order to avoid crippling anxiety from these pesky evaluations, it is important to approach them with a clear mind and an understanding of how to deal with stressful situations more broadly. In many cases, exam stress is all in the mind, and mental discipline is a large part of what is needed to succeed.

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Preparing for the Test

  1. Know what is expected of you. Be sure to consult your syllabus or ask your instructor what material you will be responsible for. If you have a concrete sense of what you will be tested on, the future test will feel less vague and more like something you can handle.[1]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 1 Version 4.jpg
    • If you aren't clear on anything, ask your teacher. Teachers would much rather answer questions than have their students proceed without understanding what's expected.
    • Make sure you have read your syllabus and any information your teacher has given you before asking the question. Your teacher won't be pleased if you send her an email asking when the test is if it's specified on page 1 of the syllabus.
  2. Study in conditions similar to your test room. There is a phenomenon in psychology called context-dependent memory. It refers to the idea that we are best able to remember things in environments similar to when the information was encoded [2]. A related phenomenon is called state-dependent memory, which means that our memory is better when we learn and retrieve information in similar bodily states.[3]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 2 Version 3.jpg
    • If you will be in a quiet room during your exam, try to simulate those conditions while you prepare. This is using context-dependent memory to your advantage.
    • As an example of state-dependent memory, if you prepare for your exam using caffeine, your memory on test day may be better if you have a similar amount of caffeine then, too.[4] Use this knowledge and know that you are taking evidence-backed steps to maximize your exam score; keep that in mind if you are feeling stressed about your upcoming exam.
  3. Take notes in class. Do not just rely on your memory or your course book. Take your class time seriously by taking notes summarizing what your teacher has said. If you are feeling exam stress, you can review your notes; this will help you remember things that happened in class that you didn't even take notes on, further giving you a sense of mastery over your material.
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 3 Version 4.jpg
    • When taking notes, focus on jotting down keywords and key ideas, rather than trying to take dictation. Copying out the exact sentences is not as important as getting down the main ideas.[5]
    • Review your notes weekly. This will help you learn the material and transfer it to long-term memory. When it comes time for the exam, you'll feel much better prepared.
  4. Manage your time wisely. Do not just cram for an exam last minute; this will surely lead to exam stress. Break up your study time into chunks over days, or weeks even. When you "chunk" your study time over the course of a longer period of time, such as a few days or weeks, you will retain more of the information.
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 4 Version 3.jpg
    • If possible, because of state-dependent memory, try to study at around the same time of day as you will be taking the test. This way you will be similarly tired/awake when you study and when you take your test. You will be used to how you feel when dealing with your course material on test day.
  5. Know where you study best. Think about the kinds of factors that allow you to be most comfortable and relaxed as you prepare for your exam. When setting up a dedicated study space:
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 5 Version 4.jpg
    • Track the level of light in the room. Some people study better with light, others study better in dimmer light.
    • Examine your work space. Decide whether you work better with a bit of clutter or if a clean, fresh work space is what you prefer.
    • Pay attention to background noise. Does music help you concentrate or do you need a quiet environment in which to study?
    • Find an alternate place to study such as a library or coffee shop. A change of scenery can give you a fresh look at the material and also provide additional resources.[6]
  6. Take frequent breaks. According to psychology studies, the average human brain can only focus on one task effectively for about 45 minutes. In addition, research in neuroscience suggests that focusing on the same thing for too long diminishes the brain's ability to accurately process it.[7]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 6 Version 3.jpg
  7. Stay hydrated. Be sure to drink plenty of water. Aim for at least 8 eight-ounce glasses of water per day. Not drinking enough water can make you feel sluggish and stressed.[8]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 7 Version 2.jpg
    • Caffeine can make you feel anxious, which can contribute to feelings of stress and anxiety. Have a cup of coffee or a cola if you like, but don't go overboard.[9] Experts recommend getting no more than 400mg of caffeine per day for adults.[10] Kids and teens should limit themselves to about 100mg per day (one cup of coffee or 3 colas).[11]
    • A cup of herbal tea can help you feel more relaxed and stay hydrated. Peppermint, chamomile, and passionflower are good choices.
  8. Reward your achievements, no matter how small. If you are feeling stressed about an exam, be sure to reward yourself for your study time. This will motivate you to continue studying and may even reduce stress.
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 8 Version 2.jpg
    • For example, after studying hard for an hour, take a break and play on the internet for 20 minutes or watch an episode of a TV show that you enjoy. This will help you get your mind off the exam while acting as a motivational carrot that may help you pick up studying again after your break.
  9. Exercise. Regular aerobic exercise can relieve stress, so if you find yourself a nervous wreck before an exam, go for a run or hit the gym.[12][13][14]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 9 Version 2.jpg
    • When you work out, listen to upbeat music that keeps you motivated throughout your workout.
    • For other ways to beat stress, see this handy wikiHow: Relax Before a Final Exam in College.
    • Meditate or do yoga after your upbeat excercise. This lets the mind focus and calm down
  10. Eat healthy foods. When you eat unhealthy foods it can make you feel negative, which can interfere with your exam preparation. Therefore, it is important to eat right if you want to have the best odds of doing well on your exam and not stressing about it. [15][16]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 10 Version 2.jpg
    • Try eating lean meats, nuts, fruits, and vegetables.[17]
    • Avoid too much sugar or heavily processed food.
    • Part of eating healthy involves having a balanced diet. Try not to eat too much of only one food source. You can usually get variety in your diet by changing up the type of cuisine you eat every couple of nights.
    • Try having a bit of time to do yoga or meditation after other excercise to calm your brain down. Remember to breath in through your nose and out through your mouth heavily.
  11. Get enough sleep. Not getting a full night's rest can contribute to feelings of fatigue, stress, and anxiety.[18][19]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 11 Version 2.jpg
    • If you have trouble sleeping, try making your bedroom pitch black. Block out sounds by changing your environment and/or wearing earplugs.
    • Get into a routine and follow it every night. Take note of how many hours a night of sleep you need in order to feel refreshed in the morning; get that many hours of sleep every night.
    • For example, if you tend to be in bed by 10:30 PM then read for 30 minutes before falling asleep, stick to that schedule as often as possible. In this way you will train your body for sleep.[20]
    • See this helpful wikiHow, Sleep Before Final Exams, for more advice.
  12. Ask yourself whether you have a learning disability. It may be the case that you have something like ADHD or other learning disability that impairs your ability to perform well on an exam. This may be stressing you out but know that schools often have resources to help you excel in school.[21]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 12 Version 2.jpg
    • If this is a concern for you, be sure to reach out to a school counselor or teacher for how to proceed in getting help.

[Edit]De-Stressing on Exam Day

  1. Eat a proper exam day breakfast. Without a proper breakfast your energy levels will quickly crash and may lead to stress, anxiety, and fatigue. Be sure to have a healthy, energy packed breakfast on exam day. Try eating foods that provide long lasting energy, such as eggs or oats. Avoid foods that are high in sugar, which will give temporary energy but may cause you to crash mid-exam.[22]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 13 Version 2.jpg
  2. Hydrate. Being dehydrated negatively affects how efficiently the brain works. Be sure to stay hydrated before your exam; drink down some water with breakfast![23]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 14 Version 2.jpg
    • If you're allowed to, bring a water bottle with you to your exam. Thinking is thirsty work! Just don't be surprised if your teacher asks to examine the bottle, as some students have tried to cheat by writing answers on bottle labels.[24] (Don't do that -- cheating is never worth it, and if you get caught, you'll be in way more trouble than you would if you'd just done poorly.
  3. Watch your caffeine intake. As tempting as it may be, don't have too much coffee/caffeine before your exam. Caffeine can increase feelings of anxiety and stress. If you are going to be stressed during your exam, caffeine will only exacerbate these feelings and make them more difficult to keep in check.[25]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 15 Version 2.jpg
    • That said, do not drastically change your typical caffeine intake on exam day. This can cause withdrawal symptoms that may interact with your stress to make you feel especially negative.[26]
    • Caffeine in limited quantities may have a positive effect on your memory, so if you usually have a cup of coffee with breakfast, go ahead.[27]
  4. Arrive early. You may be nervous about the test itself so there is no need for extra stress from fear of being late. Plus, by arriving early you will be sure to get the seat that you like.[28]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 16 Version 2.jpg
  5. Read instructions carefully. Before answering any exam questions, figure out exactly what is expected of you. Skim the test to see its content and give yourself a rough idea of how long each question will take to complete. Ambiguity can cause stress, so, by knowing how long the test is, you will reduce your stress.
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 17 Version 2.jpg

[Edit]Beating Stress During the Test

  1. Avoid rushing. Take your time going through the exam. If you get stuck on a question for a long time, instead of getting stressed about it, keep in mind that it is just one question on the exam. If possible (if the way the test is structured allows it), skip that question and return to it at the end if you have time.[29]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 18 Version 2.jpg
    • Keep an eye on the clock and give yourself five to ten minutes to go over your answers to check for any mistakes or to guess on any questions that you initially skipped.
  2. Chew some gum. Reduce your anxiety by chewing on some gum. This will keep your mouth busy and can act as a release for your anxiety.[30]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 19 Version 2.jpg
  3. Ask your instructor if you're stuck. It doesn't hurt to ask for clarification on something. She may or may not answer your question as it may give you an unfair advantage over other students, but you lose only a few seconds by raising your hand and asking.[31]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 20 Version 2.jpg
  4. Recognize test anxiety. Once you realize you are suffering from anxiety, use some or all of the steps below to alleviate it. Test anxiety can appear in the form of a number of symptoms including[32]:
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 21 Version 2.jpg
    • Cramps
    • Dry mouth
    • Nausea
    • Headache
    • Rapid heartbeat
    • Restless thoughts
    • Mental blackouts
    • Trouble concentrating
  5. Remember to breathe. With your eyes closed, take three large breaths, then pause, exhale, and repeat the process. Large, deliberate breaths not only help relax the body, but also increase the flow of oxygen to the brain. Use this technique both before the test and during difficult areas of the exam.
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 22 Version 2.jpg
    • Inhale through your nose for a count of 4. Try to hold your breath for a count of 2, then slowly exhale through your mouth for a count of 4.
  6. Expand and contract your muscles. For example, tighten your shoulders and slowly relax them, repeating the process in other tense areas of your body. Tightening muscles before relaxing them enhances the body's relaxation awareness, which relaxes the body even more.[33]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 23 Version 2.jpg
  7. Take a break if you need to. If allowed, get up and get a drink of water, use the bathroom, or simply stretch your legs if it will help you regain focus and decrease anxiety.
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 24 Version 2.jpg
  8. Put the exam in perspective. Keep in mind that, in the grand scheme of your future, doing poorly on one exam will likely not be that impactful. We often overestimate how bad things will be and how poorly they will make us feel.[34] Keep that in mind if you find yourself getting stressed out in the middle of your exam. It is probably not the end of the world if you do poorly. Life will go on and you can study harder for the next one!
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 25 Version 2.jpg
    • If you catch yourself stuck in a negative thought loop, try to detach from it. Ask yourself: what's the worst that can really happen if I don't do well on this test? Try to remain logical about it. Can you really handle the worst that could happen? Chances are, the answer is yes.[35]
    • You can also think of alternatives if you find yourself stuck worrying over how important this exam is. You may be able to retake it. You may be able to make up your grade with extra credit. You can hire a tutor or study with friends for the next exam. This isn't the end of the world.

[Edit]Dealing with Post-Exam Stress

  1. Don't think about it. Easier said than done, of course, but, try to keep in mind that once the exam is over, you can't go back and change anything about how it went. So, avoid asking your friends what they put for certain questions if you think that will just stress you out.[36] To avoid ruminating, or getting stuck in that "broken-record loop," try the following tips:
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 26 Version 2.jpg
    • Let go of the things you can't control. Ask yourself, "what about my exam can I change at this point?" If it is nothing, do your best to let it go.[37]
    • View your mistakes as opportunities to learn. From this perspective, getting a exam question wrong isn't something to be worried about.[38]
    • Try scheduling a worry break. Set aside 30 minutes and let all your worries out during that time. Think hard about the things you are stressed about. Then, once that 30 minutes is up, let it go.[39]
    • Exercise can also help you to get your mind off of your exam after it is done.[40]
    • Consult the wikiHow article Calm Post Exam Nerves for some more tips.
  2. Take time off. Clear your mind from thinking about the exam by doing something you enjoy; try to pick an activity that you typically get lost in.
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 27 Version 2.jpg
    • For example, if you get absorbed when you watch a movie or read a book, do that. If you get really into sports when you play them, get outside and play some sports!
  3. Treat yourself. Eat some pizza or sushi or candy or buy yourself a new shirt; whatever treat you like that makes you happy for a few moments. Exams are very stressful but you made it through. Now relax a bit with something you enjoy then start preparing early for your next exam!
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 29 Version 2.jpg
  4. Treat it as a learning experience. You can learn from your mistakes; remember that ultimately the goal of an exam is to assess your level of knowledge on a topic. This helps you to identify your strengths and weaknesses regarding your course content.[41]
    Deal With Exam Stress Step 28 Version 2.jpg
    • Instead of being stressed about this information, try to view it as an opportunity for an accurate assessment of your knowledge, which you can then use to improve yourself.
    • Remember that your performance on an exam is not indicative of your worth as a person. You can do poorly on an exam and still be a good student.

[Edit]Video

[Edit]Tips

  • Do not try to compare yourself with others. Some students are naturally good at studying. Instead of competing with others, the best person to compete with is yourself.
  • If you are having trouble relaxing, consider searching common relaxation and meditation techniques. These can help manage exam stress as well as the stress of everyday life.

[Edit]Related wikiHows

[Edit]References

[Edit]Quick Summary

  1. http://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/tips-for-everyday-living/student-life/coping-with-academic-work-and-exams/#.Vd47LCVViko
  2. http://www.simplypsychology.org/forgetting.html
  3. http://www.simplypsychology.org/forgetting.html
  4. http://web.csulb.edu/~jmiles/psy100/kelemen.pdf
  5. http://www.chapman.edu/students/academic-resources/tutoring-center/resources-success/study-strategies/note-taking/index.aspx
  6. http://www.studygs.net/timman.htm
  7. http://www.stressbusting.co.uk/how-to-deal-with-exam-stress/
  8. http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/water/art-20044256
  9. https://www.cmha.bc.ca/get-informed/mental-health-information/improving-mh
  10. http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/caffeine/art-20045678
  11. http://kidshealth.org/teen/drug_alcohol/drugs/caffeine.html
  12. http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/exercise-and-stress/art-20044469?pg=2
  13. https://www.cmha.bc.ca/get-informed/mental-health-information/improving-mh
  14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18505314
  15. https://www.cmha.bc.ca/get-informed/mental-health-information/improving-mh
  16. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/1HsY1X8ySjKBMVXPVCbP4qH/exam-stress
  17. https://www.cmha.bc.ca/get-informed/mental-health-information/improving-mh
  18. https://www.cmha.bc.ca/get-informed/mental-health-information/improving-mh
  19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18505314
  20. http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/sleep/art-20048379
  21. http://www.llu.edu/medicine/medical-student-education/resources/test-anxiety-tips.page
  22. http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/eating-exams
  23. http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/eating-exams
  24. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/new-ways-students-cheat-on-tests/2011/09/28/gIQAPxFL6K_blog.html
  25. http://psychcentral.com/lib/beating-stress-through-nutrition/
  26. http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/caffeine/art-20045678?pg=2
  27. http://hub.jhu.edu/2014/01/12/caffeine-enhances-memory
  28. http://www.k-state.edu/counseling/topics/career/testanxiety.html
  29. http://www.k-state.edu/counseling/topics/career/testanxiety.html
  30. http://www.k-state.edu/counseling/topics/career/testanxiety.html
  31. http://www.k-state.edu/counseling/topics/career/testanxiety.html
  32. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/1HsY1X8ySjKBMVXPVCbP4qH/exam-stress
  33. http://www.k-state.edu/counseling/topics/career/testanxiety.html
  34. https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/affective-forecasting
  35. http://www.mdaap.org/Bi_Ped_Challenging_Catastrophic_Thinking.pdf
  36. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/1HsY1X8ySjKBMVXPVCbP4qH/exam-stress
  37. http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2014/02/16/8-tips-to-help-stop-ruminating/
  38. http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2014/02/16/8-tips-to-help-stop-ruminating/
  39. http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2014/02/16/8-tips-to-help-stop-ruminating/
  40. http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2014/02/16/8-tips-to-help-stop-ruminating/
  41. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/1HsY1X8ySjKBMVXPVCbP4qH/exam-stress

How to Make Reese's Peanut Butter Cups at Home

Posted: 05 Mar 2020 12:00 AM PST

If you're craving the classic combination of peanut butter and chocolate, create a batch of your own Reese's peanut butter cups. To make the cups, mix a peanut butter filling that also uses graham crackers and powdered sugar. Then layer the filling in a muffin liner with melted chocolate. If you prefer, make a low-carb and low-sugar version that uses coconut oil and cocoa powder. For a fun take on the cups, scoop peanut butter balls and dip them in melted chocolate.

[Edit]Ingredients

[Edit]Reese's Peanut Butter Cups[1]

  • 3/4 cup (65 g) of graham cracker crumbs
  • 1 cup (125 g) of powdered sugar
  • 1½ cups (375 g) of creamy peanut butter
  • 3 cups (525 g) of milk chocolate chips

Makes 16 to 18 cups

[Edit]Low-Carb and Low-Sugar Reese's Peanut Butter Cups[2]

  • 2/3 cup (165 g) of creamy all-natural peanut butter, divided
  • of melted coconut oil, divided
  • of vanilla extract, divided
  • 3 tablespoons (22 g) of unsweetened cocoa powder
  • of maple syrup, divided
  • Himalayan sea salt to garnish

Makes 12 cups

[Edit]Reese's Peanut Butter Balls[3]

  • 1 cup (226 g) of butter, softened
  • 2 cups (500 g) of creamy peanut butter
  • 1 1/2 cups (190 g) of dry roasted peanuts, finely chopped
  • of powdered sugar
  • 3 cups (525 g) of milk chocolate chips, melted

Makes about 30 balls

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Reese's Peanut Butter Cups

  1. Put cupcake liners into a muffin tin. Put 1 cupcake liner into each space of muffin tin. Since you'll be making 16 to 18 peanut butter cups, you'll need two 12-hole muffin tins or four 6-hole muffin tins.

    • If you prefer to make mini-Reese's peanut butter cups, use a mini-muffin tin, but spray the tin with cooking spray instead of lining them. You'll probably get around 30 mini-cups.
  2. Mix the graham crackers, sugar, and peanut butter. Put 3/4 cup (65 g) of graham cracker crumbs into a mixing bowl. Add 1 cup (125 g) of powdered sugar and 1½ cups (375 g) of creamy peanut butter. Use a spoon or hand mixer to combine the mixture.

    • To make it easier to mix, consider microwaving the peanut butter for 30 to 40 seconds before adding it to the bowl.
  3. Melt the chocolate chips in the microwave at 30 second increments. Put 3 cups (525 g) of milk chocolate chips into a microwave-safe bowl. Place the bowl in the microwave and heat the chips for 30 seconds. Stir them and then microwave them for another 30 seconds. Keep doing this until the chocolate is melted.

    • If you don't want to microwave the chocolate chips, heat them in a double-boiler until they melt.
  4. Layer the chocolate and peanut butter in each cupcake liner. Put of melted chocolate into each liner. Tilt the liner or use a spoon so some of the chocolate comes up the sides a little. Then put (16 g) of the peanut butter mixture in the liner. Top the peanut butter with of the melted chocolate.

    • To make the tops level, use the back of a spoon to spread the chocolate evenly.
  5. Chill the cups for 1 hour before serving. Put the muffin tin into the refrigerator. Let the peanut butter cups chill until the chocolate is completely set and hard. Then remove them and serve.

    • To store leftover peanut butter cups, put them into an airtight container and keep them at room temperature for up to 2 to 3 weeks. If you prefer cold cups, store them in the refrigerator.

[Edit]Low-Carb and Low-Sugar Reese's Peanut Butter Cups

  1. Fill a muffin tin with liners and spray them with cooking spray. Put a cupcake liner into each cavity of a muffin tin. Spray each liner with cooking spray and put the tin aside.

  2. Mix half of the peanut butter, oil, vanilla, syrup, and all of the cocoa. Put 1/3 cup (82 g) of the creamy peanut butter into a bowl along with of the melted coconut oil, of the vanilla, of the maple syrup, and 3 tablespoons (22 g) of unsweetened cocoa powder. Stir to combine the chocolate mixture and set it aside.

    • Avoid using peanut butter that has added oils to make it spreadable.
  3. Combine the remaining ingredients in another bowl. Get out another mixing bowl and put in the remaining 1/3 cup (82 g) of the creamy peanut butter, of melted coconut oil, of vanilla extract, and of maple syrup. Stir the peanut butter mixture until it's smooth.

  4. Divide the chocolate into the muffin tin and spread it. Spoon about of the chocolate mixture into each cupcake liner. Once you've put all of the chocolate into the tin, pick up the tin and shake it around a little so the chocolate spreads across the bottom and sides of the liner.

  5. Divide the peanut butter into the tin and spread it over the chocolate. Scoop about of the peanut butter mixture directly onto each chocolate-filled cup. Spread or shake the peanut butter so it covers most of the chocolate.

    • It's fine if some of the chocolate is still visible around the peanut butter. This will just make the chocolates look hand-crafted.
  6. Garnish with salt and freeze the cups for 30 minutes. Sprinkle a little Himalayan sea salt over the top of each peanut butter cup. Then put the muffin tin in the freezer for 30 minutes so the chocolate and peanut butter set. Remove and serve the cups.

    • Freeze the leftover peanut butter cups in an airtight container for up to 1 month.

[Edit]Reese's Peanut Butter Balls

  1. Mix the butter and peanut butter in a bowl. Put 1 cup (226 g) of softened butter into a bowl along with 2 cups (500 g) of creamy peanut butter. Use a spoon or hand mixer to beat the butters until they're completely combined.

    • You shouldn't see any streaks of butter in the mixture.
  2. Stir in the ground peanuts and powdered sugar. Stir in 1 1/2 cups (190 g) of finely chopped dry roasted peanuts. Then stir in of powdered sugar. Continue to stir until it makes a firm dough.

    • If the dough is still sticky, stir in more powdered sugar until it stiffens.
  3. Scoop the peanut butter mixture into small balls. Use a spoon or cookie scoop to form the mixture into truffle-sized balls about (20 g) in size. If you prefer, make mini-balls that are about 1 teaspoon (7 g) in size.

    • You should get about 30 peanut butter balls.
  4. Chill the balls on a waxed baking sheet for 1 to 2 hours. Place the balls on a baking sheet lined with wax paper and leave at least 1/4 in (6 mm) of space between each ball. Put the sheet in the refrigerator for 1 to 2 hours.

    • Chilling the filling will help the chocolate harden faster.
  5. Dip the balls in melted chocolate. Put 3 cups (525 g) of melted milk chocolate chips into a bowl and set it on your work surface. Take the chilled balls out of the fridge and dip 1 ball at a time in the melted chocolate. Turn the ball or use another spoon to pour chocolate over the entire ball. Then set it back on the waxed paper.

    • Repeat this with all of the peanut butter balls on the baking sheet.
  6. Chill the Reese's peanut butter balls for 30 minutes. Place the baking sheet back in the refrigerator. Chilling the balls will help the chocolate harden faster. Then you can remove them and serve them.

    • Store the leftover balls in an airtight container for up to 1 month at room temperature or in the refrigerator.

[Edit]Tips

  • Try substituting another nut butter (such as almond or cashew butter) for the peanut butter.
  • Use your favorite type of chocolate such as white chocolate, dark chocolate, or semi-sweet chocolate.

[Edit]Things You'll Need

[Edit]Reese's Peanut Butter Cups

  • Measuring cups and spoons
  • Mixing bowls
  • Spoons
  • Muffin tins
  • Cupcake liners
  • Microwave-safe bowl
  • Microwave
  • Hand mixer, optional

[Edit]Low-Carb and Low-Sugar Reese's Peanut Butter Cups

  • Measuring cups and spoons
  • Mixing bowls
  • Spoon
  • Muffin tin
  • Cupcake liners
  • Cooking spray

[Edit]Reese's Peanut Butter Balls

  • Measuring cups and spoons
  • Mixing bowls
  • Spoon
  • Spoons or cookie scoop
  • Baking sheet
  • Waxed paper
  • Hand mixer, optional

[Edit]References

How to Design a Small Garden

Posted: 04 Mar 2020 04:00 PM PST

Even if you don't have a large area in your yard, you can still make a beautiful garden that maximizes the space you have. Before you begin digging or planting, make sure you have a detailed plan for the layout of your garden and the plants you want to include. Look for plants that grow well in your area and are small enough to fit in your garden when they reach their full size. With the right plants, you'll only have around 1 hour of weekly upkeep for your small garden.

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Choosing the Best Location

  1. Choose an area that gets 6–8 hours of sun daily. Since most flowering plants and vegetables require full sun to grow properly, opt for the sunniest area in your yard to place your garden. If the area doesn't get a lot of light during the day, you may still be able to grow plants that thrive in the shade.[1]
    Design a Small Garden Step 1.jpg
    • Plants that don't receive enough light won't produce as many blooms or grow as well.
  2. Pick a spot that's close to a water source. Try to find an area that either has a natural water source or sits close to your outdoor hose attachment. That way, the soil will stay moist and make it less likely to dry out and kill your plants. If you aren't able to place your garden directly by a water source, make sure it's as close as possible.[2]
    Design a Small Garden Step 2.jpg
    • You can also try building an artificial pond or water feature if you want to help keep the soil hydrated.
  3. Opt for a place where you can easily access your garden. Look for a place in your yard where you can see your garden from a window or a spot in your yard so you're able to enjoy it. Make sure you can walk into your garden with ease to make it easier to take care of your plants. Avoid placing it anywhere that's difficult to get to, or else it may become more of a hassle.[3]
    Design a Small Garden Step 3.jpg
  4. Measure the space you have available for your garden. Stretch a measuring tape across the length of the area, and record the measurement on a piece of paper. Then take the measurement for the width of the area. Double-check your measurements to make sure they're accurate so you can plan the space efficiently.[4]
    Design a Small Garden Step 4.jpg
    • Typically, plots grow best in rectangular areas, but you can make your garden a different shape, such as a triangle or circle, if it fits the space better.

[Edit]Following Design Principles

  1. Plan the layout for your garden to scale on a piece of graph paper. Draw the outline on the paper so each grid square equals . Start by sketching longer rectangles for your garden beds so they're to scale for the actual size you want them. Then divide the rectangles into smaller sections for each different plant you want to put in them, assuming that 1–2 plants usually take up . Be sure to leave a space between garden beds so you can easily walk between them and care for your plants.[5]
    Design a Small Garden Step 5.jpg
    • For example, if you want a garden bed that's and each square on the graph paper equals , then you would draw a rectangle that's 3 squares tall by 8 squares long. This bed would leave enough room for 24–48 plants.
    • Work in pencil so you can erase and make changes to the design easily.
    • Look online for digital garden planners to help you design the layout.
  2. Use square-foot gardening for the most compact growing system. Make a grid on your design so each square is . Make a list of the plants you want to grow and label each square on the grid with one of the plants from your list. Make sure you know the final growing sizes so you can easily manage how many plants of a species you'll be able to grow in the square.[6]
    Design a Small Garden Step 6.jpg
    • Typically, you can fit 1–2 individual plants of a species in area, but you may be able to plant more if they're small growths. Talk to an employee at a gardening center since they can help you choose plants that will work the best.
  3. Arrange your design so there are focal points. Aim to have 1–2 aspects of your garden design unique so they stand out from the rest of your plants. This could be a statue, fountain, or small tree placed in the center or on either side. Take into consideration where you want people to focus or have their attention drawn to when they look at your garden, and plan your design around those spots.[7]
    Design a Small Garden Step 7.jpg
    • Focal points help your garden feel more inviting and make them more visually pleasing.
    • Paths in your garden can also help draw people's eyes in certain directions to help then flow visually.
  4. Put similar plants across from one another to create rhythm and symmetry. Rather than putting different plants in each of your garden beds, opt for using the same plant or ones that have similar textures or colors so they're across from one another. That way, when you look at your garden, it will look inviting and make the area feel more balanced. Make sure the plants on each side of your garden have approximately the same sizes, or your garden design may look messy or unbalanced.[8]
    Design a Small Garden Step 8.jpg
  5. Make the edge height ⅓ of the horizontal length to help it feel enclosed. Making your garden feel enclosed will make you feel more comfortable while you're working in your garden. Measure the horizontal length of the garden area and opt for plants or design features that are at least a third of that length in your design.[9]
    Design a Small Garden Step 9.jpg
    • For example, if you have a garden that's long, aim to have plants that reach up to around the edges
  6. Include room for seating in your design if you want a place to relax. Look online or at gardening stores to find outdoor seating that fits your space and matches your style. Draw the seating in your design, and make sure you have paths that lead to it. You can place the seating directly in the grass, or you can set it on tiles or pavers for a flat, even surface.[10]
    Design a Small Garden Step 10.jpg
    • Avoid using furniture made for indoor use since it could easily develop mold or get dirty from the weather.
    • You don't need to include seating in your garden if you don't have the space.

[Edit]Selecting Your Plants

  1. Opt for raised beds that are deep for better soil. Look for raised beds or containers that are around wide and deep so the plant roots have room to grow. Avoid getting beds any wider since it can make it more difficult to care for and harvest your plants. If possible, orient the beds so they run from north to south to allow your plants to get the most amount of light during the day.[11]
    Design a Small Garden Step 11.jpg
    • Raised beds are easier to manage since you can more easily control the soil and nutrients inside the container.
    • If you don't want to use raised beds, you can still plant in rows directly in the ground.
    • Build the planting beds if you aren't able to find preconstructed ones in the sizes you need.
  2. Mix ornamental and edible plants together in your garden. Try to include at least 1–2 types of flowering ornamental plants in each of your garden beds where you plan on growing vegetables. Opt for plants that have different leaf shapes and a variety of blooms to make your garden look visually interesting. Talk to the employees at a local gardening center to find out what plants are the most compatible so they don't compete for nutrients.[12]
    Design a Small Garden Step 12.jpg
    • Some ornamental plants you can use in your garden include hostas, hibiscus, allium, salvia, lavender, and sedum.[13]
    • Flowering ornamental plants also attract beneficial insects that kill other pests and help pollinate.
    • You don't need to include vegetables in your garden if you only want ornamental or flowering plants.
  3. Choose compact varieties of plants to maximize the space. If you like the look of larger plants and want to grow them, check your local gardening center to see if they have compact versions of them. Check the final growing size on the packaging to make sure they'll still properly fit in your garden beds at the end of the season. Include the plants in your garden design drawing so you see how much space they'll take up.[14]
    Design a Small Garden Step 13.jpg
    • The most common vegetables that have compact varieties are cucumbers, tomatoes, zucchini, and squash, but you may be able to find others.
    • Avoid planting anything melons or fruit trees, since they can be difficult to control and can steal nutrients from other plants.
  4. Use companion planting to reduce competition for nutrients and manage pests. Talk to an employee at a gardening center or look online about the plants you want to grow and what pairs well with them. Try to position smaller plants in between larger ones so you can make the most of the growing space. Make sure the plants you select are compatible with one another, or else they may not grow to their full potential.[15]
    Design a Small Garden Step 14.jpg
  5. Include a fence or trellis to help plants grow vertically. Try to put the trellis or fence along the north side of your garden so plants growing on it can get the most light throughout the day. Aim to have a tall trellis to help it support the most growth.[16] Avoid placing a trellis or fence where it casts shade on other plants, or else you could make them grow less efficiently.[17]
    Design a Small Garden Step 15.jpg
    • Trellises and fences work well for plants vine-like plants, such as peas, beans, squashes, and tomatoes.
    • You may also attach shelves or containers directly to a fence if you want to grow flowering plants off of the ground.
  6. Try succession planting if you want a large variety of vegetation. Look for plants that stop blooming or are ready to harvest in the middle of the growing season. Then choose varieties of plants that thrive in the latter half of the growing season to replace the plants that grew earlier. That way, your garden will always produce fresh vegetables or blooms throughout the entire year.[18]
    Design a Small Garden Step 16.jpg
    • For example, you can plant radishes or lettuce in the spring to harvest in the late summer. Then you may grow summer squash in the same location to harvest in the fall.[19]

[Edit]Tending Your Garden

  1. Mulch between your plants to help the soil retain water. Aim to have a layer of organic mulch, such as wood chips, leaves, or peat moss. Spread the mulch evenly across your garden so it's about away from any of your plants' stems. Reapply mulch throughout the season if you notice it getting thin.[20]
    Design a Small Garden Step 17.jpg
    • Mulch also prevents weeds from growing in your garden beds.
  2. Water the soil when it feels dry below the surface. Dig a hole in the soil that's deep and touch it with your finger. If it feels dry, use a watering can or a hose to water the soil until it's wet deep. Check the soil daily to make sure it doesn't dry out and kill your plants.[21]
    Design a Small Garden Step 18.jpg
    • Plants in containers or raised beds usually need to be watered more often than those directly planted in the ground.
  3. Apply fertilizer in the beginning and middle of the growing season. You can either use liquid fertilizer or buy granules that soak into the soil. Apply half of the fertilizer amount on the soil near your plants and spread it evenly throughout the garden bed. Immediately water the soil so the fertilizer can soak in and give nutrients to your plants.[22]
    Design a Small Garden Step 19.jpg
    • Be careful not to get any fertilizer directly on your plants since you could damage them.
  4. Pull weeds out by hand when you see them growing. Check your garden beds weekly for weeds growing between your plants. Grab the weeds as close to the soil as you can and pull them straight out of the ground. If you don't want to pull them by hand, use a hoe or trowel to dig out the roots and remove them from your garden.[23]
    Design a Small Garden Step 20.jpg
    • Avoid leaving the weed's roots in the soil since they could grow back.
  5. Prune plants to control their sizes. Begin pruning at the start of the season to help promote new growth, and in the middle of the season to help keep your garden looking clean. Remove any stems or branches that have damage or look leggy with a pair of hand pruners. Make cuts at a 45-degree angle to help reduce the chance of rot.[24]
    Design a Small Garden Step 21.jpg
    • Don't cut off any more than a third of the vegetation, or else the plant may not grow back as easily.

[Edit]Tips

  • Get inspiration for designs and layouts from gardening magazines.
  • Go to a local gardening store to ask about plants that work well together and find new additions to add to your garden.

[Edit]Things You'll Need

  • Tape measure
  • Graph paper
  • Raised garden beds
  • Fencing or trellis
  • Outdoor seating (optional)
  • Watering can or hose
  • Mulch
  • Fertilizer
  • Hand pruners

[Edit]References

  1. https://www.bobvila.com/articles/2500-how-to-plant-a-vegetable-garden/
  2. https://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.html?number=C1027-11&title=Sources%20of%20Water%20for%20the%20Garden
  3. https://www.gardeners.com/how-to/garden-design-basics/5165.html
  4. https://agrilifeextension.tamu.edu/library/gardening/planning-a-garden/
  5. https://agrilifeextension.tamu.edu/library/gardening/planning-a-garden/
  6. https://www.almanac.com/video/planning-square-foot-garden
  7. https://www.gardeners.com/how-to/garden-design-basics/5165.html
  8. https://www.gardeners.com/how-to/garden-design-basics/5165.html
  9. https://www.gardendesign.com/landscape-design/rules.html
  10. https://youtu.be/U-iyod0unLM?t=312
  11. https://www.almanac.com/content/how-build-raised-garden-bed
  12. https://youtu.be/U-iyod0unLM?t=128
  13. http://www.perennialresource.com/photo_essay.php?ID=292
  14. https://www.gardeningchannel.com/small-vegetable-garden-layout-ideas/
  15. https://www.almanac.com/content/raised-bed-gardens-and-small-plots
  16. https://extension.umn.edu/planting-and-growing-guides/trellises-and-cages#stakes-821161
  17. https://www.almanac.com/content/small-vegetable-garden-plans-and-layouts#
  18. https://www.almanac.com/content/small-vegetable-garden-plans-and-layouts#
  19. https://www.gardeningchannel.com/small-vegetable-garden-layout-ideas/
  20. https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/caring-your-garden
  21. https://garden.org/learn/articles/view/1284/
  22. https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/caring-your-garden
  23. https://garden.org/learn/articles/view/1284/
  24. https://www.thisoldhouse.com/ideas/shrub-pruning-dos-and-donts

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