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Monday, January 6, 2020

How to of the Day

How to of the Day


How to Make a Borax Crystal Snowflake

Posted: 06 Jan 2020 04:00 PM PST

Creating borax crystal snowflakes is a fun way to do science and make something beautiful at the same time! It only takes a few items to make borax crystal snowflakes, and they are easy to make. You will have to wait overnight for the snowflakes to form, so plan ahead if you will need the snowflake by a certain time. Try making a crystal snowflake to use as an ornament, sun catcher, or something pretty to display on a shelf.

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Creating the Snowflake Base

  1. Cut a pipe cleaner into 3 even-sized pieces. If your pipe cleaners are long, then each piece will be . You can measure if you want to be precise, but it's also okay to eyeball it.[1]

    • Make sure to use a strong pair of scissors or wire cutters to cut through the pipe cleaner.[2]
    • You can use white pipe cleaners for white crystal snowflakes, or use colored pipe cleaners so that the color will be visible through the clear crystals.[3]
  2. Twist together 2 of the pipe cleaner pieces to form an X. Take 2 of the pieces you cut from the pipe cleaner and cross them to form an X. Then, twist the ends of the pipe cleaners in opposite directions 2 times to secure them together.[4]

    • Don't twist the pipe cleaners too much or you will have a clump of wires in the center of the X.
  3. Wrap a third pipe cleaner around the center of the X. Next, take the remaining pipe cleaner piece and wrap it around the center of the X. Distribute the ends of the pipe cleaner evenly on both sides of the X. This will connect all 3 pipe cleaner pieces into a shape that looks similar to an asterisk (*).[5]

    • Make sure the third pipe cleaner is securely attached, but do not twist it too many times around the other 2 pipe cleaners. Once or twice is plenty!
  4. Cut another pipe cleaner into 6 equal-sized pieces. Each of these pieces will be about half the size of the first set of pipe cleaner pieces you made. If the first set was each, then this set will be each.[6]

    • You may want to use a ruler to ensure that the pieces are all the same size. Hold the pipe cleaner just above a ruler and use the markings on the ruler to guide you as you cut.
  5. Twist the short pieces around the spokes for a more intricate design. To complete your design, form V shapes around the spokes with the shorter pieces of pipe cleaner. Position the short pipe cleaner about from the end of a spoke with an equal amount of pipe cleaner on each side. Then, move the ends of the pipe cleaner to the opposite sides of the spoke to wrap the small piece around it. Pull the ends tight to ensure that the pipe cleaner piece is secured to the spoke.[7]

    • Repeat this for all of the other small pieces on the remaining 5 spokes.

[Edit]Mixing the Borax Solution

  1. Fill a glass measuring cup with 4 cups (960 mL) of hot water. Bring the water to a boil by placing it in the microwave for about 3 minutes, or by boiling it in a pot or kettle on the stovetop. Ensure that the container can hold this amount of fluid and still have of space at the top.[8]

    • If you don't have a glass measuring cup, you can also use a large, wide-mouth jar to create your snowflake.[9]
    • Use caution when handling the container of boiling hot water! Use a potholder to grasp the container and move it carefully. Ask for help if you do not know how to do this safely.
  2. Stir in 12 tablespoons (36 g) of borax powder. Measure out the borax powder to add the correct amount to the water. Use a spoon to stir the borax into the water as you add it. Keep stirring until the powder is completely dissolved in the water.[10]

    • You can find borax powder in the laundry detergent aisle, but make sure that the product you buy only contains borax. Do not purchase the borax powder that is already mixed with laundry detergent![11]
  3. Add 3 drops of food coloring, if desired. Without adding food coloring, the crystals will be clear and take on the color of your pipe cleaners. If you want the crystals to be tinted with color, add 4 drops of food coloring to the solution and stir it in.[12]
    Make a Borax Crystal Snowflake Step 8 Version 2.jpg
    • Try adding 4 drops of blue food coloring for light blue snowflakes, or 2 drops of blue and 2 drops of red food coloring for purple snowflakes.

[Edit]Forming the Crystals

  1. Tie a piece of fishing line around 1 pipe cleaner and the middle of a pen. Cut the fishing line so that it is about long. Then, tie the end of the fishing line around the center of 1 of the snowflake spokes. Tie the other end of the fishing line around the center of a pen.[13]

    • A durable thread will also work in place of fishing line.
    • A pencil also works fine. Just ensure that the pen or pencil is long enough to go all the way across your container and that it can rest on the edges without falling in.
  2. Dip the snowflake base into the solution. Make sure that the snowflake base is fully submerged in the borax solution. Position the pen on the top of the container to suspend the pipe cleaner base in the solution.[14]

    • You may need to wrap the fishing line around the pen several times to make the fishing line taut and keep the snowflake upright in the solution.
  3. Wait 8 to 24 hours for crystals to form on the pipe cleaners. Place the container somewhere out of the reach of small children and pets. Then, do not disturb the container for the next 8 to 24 hours. The crystals will grow on the pipe cleaner base during this time, and the longer you wait, the more crystals there will be on the pipe cleaners.[15]

    • Let the pipe cleaner base sit in the solution for at least 8 hours or overnight.[16]
  4. Remove the snowflake from the solution and transfer it to a plate to dry. When you are happy with the amount of crystals that have formed on the pipe cleaners, grasp the pen and lift it up to remove the pipe cleaner base from the solution. Place the snowflake onto a plate and allow it to dry fully before handling it. This will take about 1 hour.[17]

    • If the bottom of the pipe cleaner base is stuck to the bottom of the container, use a fork to gently loosen it.
  5. Use the finished snowflake as an ornament or sun catcher. Once your snowflake is ready, you can display it and enjoy looking at the crystals. Use the fishing line to hang it in front of a window so it catches the sunlight, or add an ornament hook to the fishing line and hang it from your Christmas tree as a decoration.[18]

[Edit]Warnings

  • Borax crystal snowflakes are not edible! DO NOT try to eat them![19]

[Edit]Things You'll Need

  • 2 pipe cleaners in the color of your choice
  • Strong scissors or wire cutters
  • Ruler
  • Fishing line or durable thread
  • Pen or pencil
  • Glass measuring cup or a large wide-mouthed jar
  • Boiling hot water
  • Borax powder
  • Food coloring (optional)
  • Glass plate

[Edit]References

How to Tell if You're a Super Taster

Posted: 06 Jan 2020 08:00 AM PST

If you're a foodie, you might be interested to know if you're a supertaster. Super tasters experience more intense flavors when they eat because they have an increased amount of taste receptors on their tongues. You can see how many taste receptors you have by using food dye and counting them. Or, if you're old enough to drink, swirling wine around your tongue will also increase their visibility. You might also take note of how you experience certain flavors (although that's not a sure-fire test). Only 25% of people in the world are supertasters, but you could be one of them!

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Using Blue Food Dye

  1. Place 3 to 4 drops of blue food coloring onto your tongue. Swirl the dye onto your tongue a little to make sure it coats the entire top of your tongue. The food dye will help the small bumps (papillae) stand out from the surface of your tongue.[1]
    Tell if You're a Super Taster Step 1.jpg
    • You can also use green food dye—just avoid using red or pink, as it's too close to the color of your tongue.
    • If you don't have any food dye (and if you're of legal drinking age), swirl red wine in your mouth. Red wine contains acids and sugars that stimulate the taste receptors on your tongue.[2]
  2. Put a hole-punch reinforcement sticker onto your tongue. Stick out your tongue and place the hole-punch sticker on the top of your tongue toward the front. Since your tongue is wet, it may not stick, but place it on the top and tilt your head so it stays in place.[3]
    Tell if You're a Super Taster Step 2.jpg
    • If you don't have a hole-punch reinforcement sticker, cut a piece of lined paper into a small strip that includes 1 hole punch. Lay that on the front area of your tongue instead.
  3. Use a magnifying glass and a flashlight to see the papillae better. Lean into a mirror and shine a flashlight onto your tongue. Position the magnifying glass at an angle between your face and the mirror where you can see your tongue reflected in the mirror.[4]
    Tell if You're a Super Taster Step 3.jpg
    • If you don't have a magnifying glass, you can also use a magnifying mirror.
  4. Count the number of bumps inside the circular sticker. Hold your tongue very still and count how many bumps you see inside the circular sticker. Regular tasters have about 15 to 30, but if you have more than 30, you're a supertaster![5]
    Tell if You're a Super Taster Step 4.jpg
    • If you have a friend, family member, or roommate around, ask them to help you count the bumps or double-check your tally.
    • If you're using a strip of paper and red wine, place it on your tongue toward the back (where you see larger lumps). If you have more than 8 lumps, you're a supertaster.[6]

[Edit]Tasting Foods and Drinks

  1. Notice if you tend to avoid naturally bitter foods and drinks. Bitterness is detected at the back of the tongue, where large lumps of papillae are located. Supertasters have lots of these lumps, causing bitterness to be exacerbated. If you avoid these foods because they taste so bitter to the point of disgust, you could be a supertaster. Some of the naturally bitter foods supertasters avoid are:[7]
    Tell if You're a Super Taster Step 5.jpg
    • Coffee
    • Dark chocolate
    • Non-sweetened alcoholic beverages (like gin and tonics)
    • Beer (IPAs, bitter pale-ales)
  2. Eat green vegetables to see if they taste sour. Spinach, broccoli, brussels sprouts, kale, and collard greens can taste overly bitter and off-putting to supertasters. If you purposefully avoid these foods for that reason, you might be a supertaster.[8]
    Tell if You're a Super Taster Step 6.jpg
    • Keep in mind that if you avoid these foods just because you don't like them, that doesn't make you a supertaster.
    • Eat the greens raw or cooked with little to no oil and seasoning to let the natural flavor of each vegetable come through.
  3. Try spicy foods and note how you react. Since supertasters experience flavors more intensely than regular tasters, spicy peppers will be extremely spicy—even to the point of pain. That's because supertasters also have more pain receptors on the tongue (in addition to more papillae).[9]
    Tell if You're a Super Taster Step 7.jpg
    • If you avoid jalapeno peppers, serrano peppers, tabasco peppers, cayenne, or hot sauce because you experienced pain, that could be a sign that you're a supertaster.
    • If you like the burn of spicy foods, you might still be a supertaster—you've just conditioned yourself to like the sensation.
  4. Eat cilantro to see if it tastes soapy. For normal tasters, cilantro tastes fresh and citrusy. But if you're a supertaster, it might taste soapy or metallic. Eat fresh-picked cilantro leaves or dried cilantro to see how you respond.[10]
    Tell if You're a Super Taster Step 8.jpg
    • Some supertasters think cilantro tastes bitter as well.
  5. Notice if you perceive foods to be over-seasoned on a regular basis. If you regularly find yourself judging food as too salty, too peppery, or too heavy on the spices, you might have more taste receptors on your tongue than the average eater. It may seem like you're just a picky eater, when really, you could be a supertaster![11]
    Tell if You're a Super Taster Step 9.jpg
    • However, this isn't a sure-fire sign because it could be that you just like lightly-seasoned foods.

[Edit]Tips

  • Don't assume that supertasters are "better" or enjoy eating food more than the average taster.
  • Sometimes, strong reactions to certain tastes might be a sign of sensory processing disorder, a condition that is more common in childhood but can last into adult years. It affects how you perceive sensory input.

[Edit]Warnings

  • Brush your teeth as soon as possible after doing the test with blue food dye. Food dyes will stain your teeth for about 2 hours without brushing.

[Edit]Things You'll Need

[Edit]Using Blue Food Dye

  • Magnifying glass
  • Flashlight
  • Blue food dye
  • Hole punch reinforcement stickers
  • Mirror (or a friend to count for you)
  • Lined notebook paper (optional)
  • Red wine (optional)

[Edit]Tasting Foods and Drinks

  • Bitter foods and drinks: coffee, dark chocolate, non-sweetened alcoholic beverages, beer (IPA)
  • Green vegetables: spinach, broccoli, brussels sprouts, kale, and collard greens
  • Spicy foods: jalapeno peppers, serrano peppers, tabasco peppers, cayenne, or hot sauce
  • Cilantro (fresh or dried)

[Edit]References

How to Store Old Photos

Posted: 06 Jan 2020 12:00 AM PST

Old photographs are great momentos to pass down between generations and preserve history. When you have old photos that you want to save, there are easy ways to ensure they don't fade or get damaged. If you want to keep prints, keep them in individual sleeves in a dark place so they don't get damaged. If you want to back up your photos, scanning them digitally will allow you to access them on a computer and reprint them. With proper storage, you'll be able to keep your photos looking great!

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Preserving Physical Prints

  1. Organize your prints into chronological order to make them easier to find. Lay out your photos and sort them into groups based on how old they are. You don't need to get the order perfect as long as you're able to remember where you put your photos. If you want to, remove any photos that are poor-quality or that you don't want to save.[1]
    Store Old Photos Step 1.jpg
    • If you don't know the chronological order, you can also sort by the location in the photo or who's in each picture.
    • If you have a large photo collection, break the job into smaller chunks so you don't get overwhelmed.
    • Be sure to wash your hands before handling old photographs so you don't leave any damaging oil on them.
  2. Use a photo album if you still want to look through your photos regularly. Get a photo album that uses sleeved pages rather than adhesives or picture corners. Slide 1 picture into each slot on the album pages so they're displayed in the order you organized them. If there are lines on the sides of the page, you can use them to write a description of the picture.[2]
    Store Old Photos Step 2.jpg
    • You can buy photo albums with various cover designs from big box stores or photography shops.
    • You can also write descriptions on the backs of the photos using a felt-tip pen or marker.
    • Some photo albums have a set amount of bound pages while others allow you to add more pages later on. Choose a style that works best for you.
    • Photo albums work best for photos that are or smaller.
  3. Place individual prints in acid-free sleeves to keep them safe. Acid-free sleeves keep your photos flat and prevent them from fading. Get sleeves that match the sizes of your prints so your photos don't slide around or get damaged. Only use 1 photo per sleeve, and use a felt-tip marker to label the sleeve or the back of the photo with a description.[3]
    Store Old Photos Step 3.jpg
    • You can buy acid-free sleeves online or from photography stores.
    • Avoid using a ballpoint pen to write descriptions on the sleeves or photos since you could leave dents.
    • If you have larger prints, such as an , and aren't able to find acid-free sleeves, you can also use manilla envelopes.
  4. Store the photos in acid-free boxes for more condensed storage. Get a photo storage box that's tall enough for your pictures to stand up straight and is labeled "acid-free." Put your sleeved photos into the box in the order you laid them out. Fill the box so the photos don't move around or shift out of place before sealing it closed.[4]
    Store Old Photos Step 4.jpg
    • You can buy acid-free photo storage boxes online or from photography shops.
    • If you aren't able to stand the photos up straight, lay them flat on the bottom of the box and carefully stack them so they don't get damaged.
    • If you aren't able to get an acid-free storage box, you can also use a shoebox.
  5. Keep photos in an area that's below and has low humidity. Choose a place that doesn't receive a lot of light and is away from moisture, such as under your bed, in a closet, or inside of a cabinet drawer. Make sure the temperature doesn't regularly go over since it could damage your photos. Check the humidity using a hygrometer to see if it's between 15–65%, or else your photos will age more quickly.[5]
    Store Old Photos Step 5.jpg
    • Avoid storing photos in a garage, attic, or basement since moisture can build up and cause the photos to warp.
    • If you're putting photos in a storage unit, make sure you can control the climate so your photos don't age.
  6. Display old photos with archival frames in areas that don't get constant light. If you want to show off older photos, choose frames that have archival glass to help slow down their aging process. Put the photos on walls that are out of direct sunlight so they don't fade as quickly. When you aren't in the room with the photos, turn off the lights and close any curtains to preserve them for longer.[6]
    Store Old Photos Step 6.jpg
    • Choose multiple photos to display so you can cycle through them so they don't age as quickly.

[Edit]Digitizing Your Photos

  1. Clean the glass on a scanner with a lens cleaner and lint-free cloth. Open the scanner to reveal the glass scanning surface. Spray the lens cleaner onto the cloth and wipe the glass in a circular motion to remove any dust that's left on the surface. Make sure there aren't any streaks on the glass, or else they'll be visible on your photos when you scan them. Close the scanner so dust doesn't land on the glass.[7]
    Store Old Photos Step 7.jpg
    • If you don't have a scanner at home, you may be able to find one at your local library or a print shop.
  2. Set the scanner so it uploads as a TIFF at 600 DPI. Access the scanner properties on your computer and check the output file format. Look through the list of file types and choose TIFF so the scan runs at the highest quality. Then look for the DPI (dots per inch) setting and change it to 600 so the photo doesn't pixelate when you scan it.[8]
    Store Old Photos Step 8.jpg
    • If you can't use TIFF as a file format, you can also try using JPG for similar results.
    • If you don't plan on enlarging the photos, you can also try a 300 DPI setting.
  3. Lay your photos face down on the scanner. You can usually scan 3–4 pictures at the same time to make the process move faster. Put the pictures against the scanner's glass so the sides with the images face down. Ensure that the photos lay flat and don't hang off of the glass. Close the cover so the photos don't move around.[9]
    Store Old Photos Step 9.jpg
    • Some scanning software auto-detects photographs while others may make you crop your photos later on.
  4. Name and scan the images onto your computer. Press the Preview button on your scanner or computer to do a pre-scan so you can see if the photos look okay. If you like how the photos look after the preview, type in a short file name into the box on your screen before clicking "Scan." The scanner may take a few seconds or minutes to digitize your photographs.[10]
    Store Old Photos Step 10.jpg
    • For example, you could name a file "family_vacation98" so you can go back and find the images later.

[Edit]Backing up Digital Photos

  1. Upload your photos to a cloud storage site so you can access them anywhere. Cloud storage sites give you a set amount of space that you access as long as you're connected to the Internet. Look for a cloud service that meets your needs and choose a plan that matches how much storage you need. Upload the scanned photos to the cloud so they can save.[11]
    Store Old Photos Step 11.jpg
    • Keep copies of your scanned photos on your computer in case there's a problem with your cloud services.
    • Many cloud services will give you a free amount of storage, but you can pay to buy more if you want it.
  2. Get a storage app on your phone if you have pictures there. Storage apps automatically upload pictures you take on your phone to the Internet so you don't lose them if you misplace your device. Look for a storage app that fits your needs and create an account. Allow the app to access the photos on your device so it can upload them to cloud so you can access them anywhere.[12]
    Store Old Photos Step 12.jpg
    • Many large cloud storage services, such as Amazon Prime Photos, Apple iCloud, and Google Photos, have apps so you can access photos you uploaded from your computer as well.
  3. Copy your files onto external hard drives or CDs so you have physical backups. Get an external drive that's large enough to hold all of your photos and plug it into your computer. Locate the scanned photos on your computer and place them in a folder so you can copy them easily. Make a copy of that folder to upload to a hard drive or CD so you don't lose the scans if your computer crashes.[13]
    Store Old Photos Step 13.jpg
    • You can buy external hard drives from electronics stores.
    • Many photo departments have services where you can transfer files to a CD if you aren't able to burn them at home.

[Edit]Tips

  • Always wash your hands before you handle your photos so you don't leave any oils on your pictures.
  • There are many online services you can use to digitize your photos if you aren't able to at home.

[Edit]Things You'll Need

[Edit]Preserving Physical Prints

  • Acid-free sleeves or pages
  • Photo albums
  • Acid-free storage boxes
  • Archival frames

[Edit]Digitizing Your Photos

  • Computer
  • Scanner
  • Lens cleaner
  • Lint-free cloth
  • External hard drives or CDs

[Edit]References

How to Find a Substitute for a Wire Cooling Rack (Baking)

Posted: 05 Jan 2020 04:00 PM PST

A wire cooling rack is an indispensable piece of kitchenware when you want to quickly and efficiently cool down baked goods. However, you might not always have one handy. If this is the case, improvise a rack out of other common things you can find in many kitchens or set pans down where they have airflow so the bottom cools down faster. If you can't create a makeshift cooling rack or set a pan somewhere where it will cool down faster, transfer baked goods to other cool, flat surfaces to cool them down faster.

[Edit]Steps

[Edit]Improvising an Elevated Surface

  1. Use a spare baking rack if you have one available. Pull an extra rack out of the oven, toaster oven, or roasting pan. Set it on the counter and set a hot baking sheet or pan on it to cool or transfer the baked goods directly to the baking rack to cool them even faster.[1]
    Find a Substitute for a Wire Cooling Rack (Baking) Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • If there isn't enough clearance under the rack to allow a lot of air flow, you can set it on something that will lift it up higher and still allow air underneath all of it. For instance, a frying pan or a pot would work.
  2. Use a removable grate from a gas stovetop as a cooling rack. This will work if you have the type of gas stove with raised grates that sit over top of the burners. Take a grate off and set it on the counter, then set a pan on it so the bottom of the pan cools faster or transfer large baked goods directly to it.[2]

    • Make sure the grate is completely cool before you do this.
    • If you want to transfer a large baked item, such as a loaf of bread, directly to the grate to cool, clean the grate thoroughly with soap and water first.
  3. Place baked goods on top of a cool burner on an electric stove. Set a hot pan or baking sheet down on the burner so the airflow will cool it down faster or transfer large baked items directly to the burner. Clean the burner thoroughly before you put any baked goods directly on it.
    Find a Substitute for a Wire Cooling Rack (Baking) Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Make sure none of the burners around it are on, or else the baked goods won't cool down effectively.
  4. Roll up pieces of foil and put them on the counter apart. Roll at least 3 pieces of foil into tight cylinders thick enough to lift the baked items you want to cool off the countertop and allow air to circulate underneath. Place the rolls about apart from each other, then set a baking sheet, pan, or large baked item on top of them.[3]

    • Make more than 3 foil cylinders if whatever you plan to cool is large and heavy. As long as the cylinders can be spaced apart from each other, there is no limit on how many you can use to distribute the weight.
  5. Create a grid out of metal open-style cookie cutters to use as a rack. Position several open-style metal cookie cutters of any shape next to each other with a little space between them so air can move around. Set your pan or baking sheet of baked goods down on them or transfer a large baked item to sit directly on top of them to cool down.[4]

    • You won't be able to transfer smaller baked goods, such as cookies or muffins, directly onto the cookie cutters because they won't be able to balance on them.

[Edit]Transferring Items to a Cool, Flat Surface

  1. Place baked items on a clean, cool baking sheet to cool down faster. Transfer baked goods from a warm baking sheet or pan to the cold one. This will help the undersides of the baked items cool down faster than leaving them on the sheet they were baked on.[5]

    Find a Substitute for a Wire Cooling Rack (Baking) Step 6.jpg
    • Set the baking sheet aside and away from the oven ahead of time to ensure it is cool when you want to put the baked goods on it.
  2. Put baked items on a countertop lined with paper towels to cool down. Line a countertop with paper towels. Transfer the baked goods from the pan or baking sheet to the paper towels and wait for them to cool.
    Find a Substitute for a Wire Cooling Rack (Baking) Step 7.jpg
    • The paper towels will also absorb extra oil, butter, or grease from the bottoms of the cookies.
  3. Transfer baked goods to a cool plate to cool them faster. A room temperature plate that is large enough to hold the cake, cookies, bread, or pastries will work to cool them down more quickly. Carefully remove the baked goods from the pan or baking sheet and place them on a clean, cool plate with space between individual items.[6]

    • Put a paper towel down on the plate first if you want to absorb extra oil or butter from the bottoms of the baked items.
  4. Use a room-temperature pizza baking stone to cool baked items if you have one. Simply slide the baked items onto the pizza stone or transfer them with a spatula. Leave them to cool at room temperature.

  5. Move baked goods to a cool cutting board to let them cool down. Any kind of clean cutting board works as a good flat surface to cool down baked items on. Transfer the baked goods to the board so they cool down faster than if you leave them on a baking sheet or in a pan.
    Find a Substitute for a Wire Cooling Rack (Baking) Step 10.jpg
    • Marble or granite chopping boards can be an especially good surface to cool a baked item on because they stay very cool.
    • Lay a paper towel on top of the cutting board first to absorb extra fat from the baked goods if you want.

[Edit]Tips

  • Wire cooling racks are inexpensive items that are very handy to have in the kitchen. If you don't have one, consider picking one up next time you visit a kitchen supply store.

[Edit]Things You'll Need

[Edit]Improvising and Cooling Down Pans Faster

  • Spare baking rack
  • Removable gas stove grate
  • Burner on electric stove
  • Foil
  • Open-style cookie cutters

[Edit]Transferring Items to a Cool, Flat Surface

  • Baking sheet
  • Plate
  • Pizza stone
  • Cutting board
  • Paper towels (optional)

[Edit]Related wikiHows

[Edit]References